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Lind, T. (2019). Upper secondary schools and sparsity: the case of Northern Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research (3), 333-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upper secondary schools and sparsity: the case of Northern Sweden
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Governmental reforms since the early 1990s have acted as a push factor for starting new schools in Sweden and have created options for pupils to choose a school irrespective of municipal borders. This study highlights the upper secondary school system in small municipalities in northern Sweden since the late 1990s. The analysis shows that the reforms led to more schools, and thereby also to more competition in recruiting pupils both within and across municipal borders. When the cohorts started declining, the vulnerability of the school structure became obvious. The competition generated higher costs per capita and fewer available programs in small municipalities. Furthermore, it was noted that fewer pupils attending schools in small municipalities completed their education compared to those in larger municipalities

Keywords
Upper secondary schools, northern Sweden, small municipalities, school structure
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143194 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2017.1375005 (DOI)000460047500003 ()881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form 

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Lind, T. (2017). Schools in sparse spatial structures. (Licentiate dissertation). Umeå: Department of geography and economic history, Umeå university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schools in sparse spatial structures
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes and analyses how the school sector in sparsely populated municipalities in northern Sweden has developed with emphasis on spatial dimensions and in relation to demographic change and political reforms during the last 20 years.

In paper I primary schools were studied in a number of small municipalities in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The aim of the study was to investigate how the spatial structure of schools has changed, what strategies the municipalities have developed to adapt their schools to changing conditions and what constraints there are to apply the strategies. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews with municipal representatives were conducted.

In paper II, the upper secondary school system was studied. The aim of the paper was to analyse the combined consequences of the school reforms, demographic development and competition on the ability of small municipalities to provide upper secondary schools during the period 1997 to 2015 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The study was based on data from the database SIRIS at the Swedish National Agency for Education and has a descriptive approach.

The spatial structure of school organizations under study has undergone substantial changes during the recent decades, with closures and mergers among primary schools and an expansion of upper secondary schools. In recent years, the size of the young cohorts have decreased, which overall has led to increasing pressures to close primary schools and has created a detrimental competition between upper secondary schools. The large distances and the already small and declining number of pupils have had major effects on the ability to offer a good range and quality in the supply and availability of education. According to representatives from all the studied municipalities, the ambition is to prioritize the primary schools in the municipal centre and have as few small village schools as possible, taking into consideration quality of education, per capita costs, distances, and how scattered the pupils are within the municipalities. Independent schools and their increasingly larger role have attracted a great deal of attention in media, but this is a change that has mainly occurred in municipalities with large populations and their presence in the studied municipalities is very small both at the primary and upper secondary level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of geography and economic history, Umeå university, 2017. p. 54
Series
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; 2017:2
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143192 (URN)881251 (Local ID)9789176016428 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lind, T. & Olof, S. (2015). Organizational challenges for schools in rural municipalities: cross-national comparisons in a Nordic context. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 30(6), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational challenges for schools in rural municipalities: cross-national comparisons in a Nordic context
2015 (English)In: Journal of Research in Rural Education, ISSN 1551-0670, E-ISSN 1551-0670, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the spatial structure of primary schools and alternative organizational frameworks are studied in a number of rural municipalities in the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate how the spatial structure of schools has changed between the years 2008 and 2013 in these municipalities, what strategies the municipalities have developed to adapt their schools to changing conditions, and what constraints there are to apply the strategies at the local level. To answer these questions, semi-structured interviews with municipal representatives were conducted. Substantial changes to the spatial structure of school organizations through closures and mergers can be observed. The overall strategy for the future in all three national settings is a spatial structure with well equipped and well staffed schools in municipal centers and as few small village schools as possible, using information and communication technology (ICT) as a distance-bridging technology. The constraints to applying these strategies are on three different spatial levels. At the state level, the state places constraints regarding what municipalities and schools can and cannot do. At the municipal level, local politicians do not want to close schools for fear of losing the next election. At the community level, the constraints mainly lie in the resistance and strong social capital of the inhabitants who are focused on keeping their schools open irrespective of per capita costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Penn State University Press, 2015
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103964 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Projects
Interreg Botnia-Atlantica project “Learning about Development in Botnia-Atlantica.”
Note

Sponsored by the European Regional Development Fund, County Administrative Board of Västerbotten, Regional Council of Ostrobothnia, Vasa University, Åbo Academy, and Umeå University.

Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lind, T. (2013). Regional policy and the role of the regional level in Finland, Norway and Sweden: A comparative study. In: Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström (Ed.), Natural resources and regional development theory: (pp. 52-68). Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional policy and the role of the regional level in Finland, Norway and Sweden: A comparative study
2013 (English)In: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, p. 52-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet, 2013
Series
GERUM Kulturgeografisk arbetsrapport ; 2013-12-02
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85121 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-01-28 Created: 2014-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Wiberg, U. & Lind, T. (2012). Uppfattningar om att leva och bo i norr. In: Anders Lidström (Ed.), Ett delat Norrland: på väg mot regioner? (pp. 161-173). Umeå: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uppfattningar om att leva och bo i norr
2012 (Swedish)In: Ett delat Norrland: på väg mot regioner? / [ed] Anders Lidström, Umeå: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 161-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2012
Series
Forskningsrapporter i statsvetenskap vid Umeå universitet, ISSN 0349-0831 ; 2012:1
Keywords
livsvillkor, regional utveckling, Norrland
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-53085 (URN)881251 (Local ID)978-91-7459-375-4 (ISBN)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2012-03-13 Created: 2012-03-13 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Wiberg, U. & Lind, T. (2011). Mind maps of employment development in Swedish sparse regions. Fennia, 189(11), 32-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mind maps of employment development in Swedish sparse regions
2011 (English)In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 189, no 11, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Employment options are forming an essential part of living conditions for individuals and households. In this paper we present how people in Sweden perceive current and future job options. The empirical case is the northern half of the Swedish territory, which is divided into four counties. The analysis is based on data from a questionnaire which was distributed to 4 000 inhabitants aged 15-85 years during October 2008 - January 2009. The ANOTA method is used as analytical instrument. Two categories of determinants behind attitudes to job options in general at the local labor market have been chosen. The first category includes a set of personal attributes, while the second category includes a set of locational characteristics. Further is analyzed how the respondents perceived the specific role of manufacturing industry, service industry and R&D for the development in their county. Also in this part the two categories of determinants are used. The analysis reveals a rather widely spread anxiety about both current and future provision of job options. The most satisfied and optimistic respondents were young, male and high income earners living in coastal municipal with a low unemployment level. There were also some striking differences in views among sub groups on the role of manufacturing industry, service industry and R&D. The biggest contrasts were between manufacturing industry and R&D. The highest share of respondents who regarded manufacturing industry as very important was found among men, over 30 years, with a low education and living in municipalities with a high unemployment level. The highest share of respondents who regarded R&D as very important was found among women, younger than 30 years, highly educated and living in coastal municipalities with a low unemployment level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsingfors: , 2011
Keywords
Northern Sweden, employment, ANOTA analysis, path dependency, manufacturing industry, service industry, R&D
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46807 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2011-09-15 Created: 2011-09-15 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lind, T. (2011). Olika uppfattningr om livsvillkoren i stora och små kommuner i norra Sverige. Umeå: CERUM, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Olika uppfattningr om livsvillkoren i stora och små kommuner i norra Sverige
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Synen på vad som är viktig för länets utveckling visar på de stora kontrasterna som finns i de fyra nordligaste länen. Boende i stora kommuner tror mer på en kunskapsinriktad, högteknologisk framtid medan respondenter i små kommuner tror mer på basindustrier. Detta beror förmodligen på att basindustrin tillgodoser förhållandevis fler jobb i små kommuner medan universitet och sjukvård är etablerade i större städer. Dock så kan det få den långvariga konskevensen att den kreativa klassen flyttar till städerna samt att små kommuner kan få svårt att behålla dem.

En effekt av finanskrisen är en mer pessimistisk syn på tillgången till jobb, skola och förutsättningarna för att starta eget i båda kommungrupperna och respondenterna i små kommuner tror att situationen kommer försämras i framtiden. Trots att framtidstron i de små kommunerna är låg så har dock situationen blivit bättre i flertalet kategorier sedan 2008. Finanskrisen stora effekt har framförallt varit på sysselsättningen och entreprenörskapet men i övriga kategorier kan man se en förbättring.

Ett sammanfattande intryck är att även om de norrländska städerna är relativt små så har de ändå utvecklats till miljöer som i flertalet avseenden uppfattas kunna erbjuda bättre livschanser än de små, ofta glest bebyggda, kommunerna. Framtidssynen är positivare och den ekonomiska krisen har överlag slagit mindre hårt i städerna. De största kommunernas befolkningstillväxt och de små kommunernas befolkningsminskning bekräftar denna slutsats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: CERUM, Umeå universitet, 2011. p. 9
Series
CERUM Report, ISSN 0282-0277 ; 37
Keywords
Regionalvetenskap, Livsvillkor, stora och små kommuner, Norra Sverige
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51330 (URN)978-91-7459-311-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5672-4003

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