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Mee, Paul
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Mee, P., Kahn, K., Kabudula, C., Wagner, R., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Madhavan, S., . . . Byass, P. (2016). The development of a localised HIV epidemic and the associated excess mortality burden in a rural area of South Africa. Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics, 1(e7)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a localised HIV epidemic and the associated excess mortality burden in a rural area of South Africa
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2016 (English)In: Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics, E-ISSN 2054-4200, Vol. 1, no e7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa rapidly developed into a major pandemic. Here we analyse the development of the epidemic in a rural area of the country. The data used were collected between 1992 and 2013 in a longitudinal population survey, the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Study, in the northeast of the country. Throughout the period of study mortality rates were similar in all villages, suggesting that there were multiple index cases evenly spread geographically. These were likely to have been returning migrant workers. For those aged below 39 years the HIV mortality rate was higher for women, above this age it was higher for men. This indicates the protective effect of greater access to HIV testing and treatment among older women. The recent convergence of mortality rates for Mozambicans and South Africans indicates that the former refugee population are being assimilated into the host community. More than 60% of the deaths occurring in this community between 1992 and 2013 could be attributed directly or indirectly to HIV. Recently there has been an increasing level of non-HIV mortality which has important implications for local healthcare provision. This study demonstrates how evidence from longitudinal analyses can support healthcare planning.

Keywords
AIDS, epidemic, epidemiology, HIV, mortality, South Africa, Agincourt
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108613 (URN)10.1017/gheg.2016.3 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006–1512Wellcome trust, 058893/Z/99/A; 069683/Z/02/Z; 085477/Z/08/Z
Note

Originally published in manuscript form.

Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Byass, P., Kabudula, C. W., Mee, P., Ngobeni, S., Silaule, B., Gomez-Olive, F. X., . . . Kahn, K. (2015). A Successful Failure: missing the MDG4 Target for Under-Five Mortality in South Africa. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), Article ID e1001926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Successful Failure: missing the MDG4 Target for Under-Five Mortality in South Africa
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2015 (English)In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e1001926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PloS, 2015
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116757 (URN)10.1371/journal.pmed.1001926 (DOI)000368451100016 ()26694732 (PubMedID)
Note

PB is a member of the PLOS Medicine Editorial Board. The authors have declared that no other competing interests exist.

Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Rosenberg, M., Pettifor, A., Nguyen, N., Westreich, D., Bor, J., Baernighausen, T., . . . Kahn, K. (2015). Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 10(9), Article ID e0137352.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0137352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women. Methods We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio- Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non- recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i) women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility) to (ii) women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible). Results The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75). Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI): 0.9 (0.5, 1.4)]. Conclusions Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110517 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0137352 (DOI)000361797500031 ()26398678 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-10-22 Created: 2015-10-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mee, P. (2015). Who died, where, when and why?: an investigation of HIV-related mortality in rural South Africa. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who died, where, when and why?: an investigation of HIV-related mortality in rural South Africa
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

South Africa has experienced the most severe consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Every community has been affected in some way, many experiencing huge increases in mortality,particularly before antiretroviral therapies (ART) were readily available. However, the micro-level understanding of the HIV epidemic in South Africa is weak, because of a lack of detailed data for most of the population. This thesis is based on detailed individual follow-up in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) located in the Agincourt subdistrict of Mpumalanga Province and investigates micro-level determinants of HIV epidemiology and the impact of treatment provided.

Methods

The Agincourt HDSS has followed a geographically defined population since 1992,approximately the time when the HIV/AIDS epidemic first became apparent. This population based surveillance has included capturing details of all deaths, with cause of death determined by verbal autopsy, as well as the geographical location of individual households within the overall Agincourt area. Background information on the roll-out of ART over time was also recorded.

Results

A comparison immediately before and after the major roll-out of ART showed a substantial decrease in HIV-related mortality, greater in some local communities within the area than others. Individual determinants associated with a decreased risk of HIV/AIDS mortality included proximity to ART services, as well as being female, younger, and in higher socioeconomic and educational strata. There was a decrease in the use of traditional healthcare sources and an increase in the use of biomedical healthcare amongst those dying of HIV/AIDS between periods before and after the roll-out of ART.

Conclusions

Understanding micro-level determinants of HIV/AIDS infection and mortality was very important in terms of characterising the overall epidemic in this community. This approach will enable public health interventions to be more effectively targeted towards those who need them most in the continuing evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. p. 81
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1736
Keywords
HIV, AIDS, Mortality, Determinants, Risk Factor, Spatial Epidemiology, Structural Determinant, Antiretroviral Therapy, Healthcare Access, South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Traditional Medical Practitioner, Traditional Medicine, Tuberculosis, Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Global Health, Population Health, Epidemiology
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108610 (URN)978-91-7601-309-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-09, Room 135 Building 9A, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006–1512Wellcome trust, 058893/Z/99/A; 069683/Z/02/Z; 085477/Z/08/Z
Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mee, P., Wagner, R. G., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Kabudula, C., Kahn, K., Madhavan, S., . . . Tollman, S. M. (2014). Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 - 2011: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14(1), Article ID 504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 - 2011: a retrospective cohort study
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2014 (English)In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In 2011 there were 5.5 million HIV infected people in South Africa and 71% of those requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART) received it. The effective integration of traditional medical practitioners and biomedical providers in HIV prevention and care has been demonstrated. However concerns remain that the use of traditional treatments for HIV-related disease may lead to pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal remedies and ART drugs and delay ART initiation. Here we analyse the changing prevalence and determinants of traditional healthcare use amongst those dying of HIV-related disease, pulmonary tuberculosis and other causes in a rural South African community between 2003 and 2011. ART was made available in this area in the latter part of this period.

METHODS: Data was collected during household visits and verbal autopsy interviews. InterVA-4 was used to assign causes of death. Spatial analyses of the distribution of traditional healthcare use were performed. Logistic regression models were developed to test associations of determinants with traditional healthcare use.

RESULTS: There were 5929 deaths in the study population of which 47.7% were caused by HIV-related disease or pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV/AIDS and TB). Traditional healthcare use declined for all deaths, with higher levels throughout for those dying of HIV/AIDS and TB than for those dying of other causes. In 2003-2005, sole use of biomedical treatment was reported for 18.2% of HIV/AIDS and TB deaths and 27.2% of other deaths, by 2008-2011 the figures were 49.9% and 45.3% respectively. In bivariate analyses, higher traditional healthcare use was associated with Mozambican origin, lower education levels, death in 2003-2005 compared to the later time periods, longer illness duration and moderate increases in prior household mortality. In the multivariate model only country of origin, time period and illness duration remained associated.

CONCLUSIONS: There were large decreases in reported traditional healthcare use and increases in the sole use of biomedical treatment amongst those dying of HIV/AIDS and TB. No associations between socio-economic position, age or gender and the likelihood of traditional healthcare use were seen. Further qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to assess whether these figures reflect trends in healthcare use amongst the entire population and the reasons for the temporal changes identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2014
Keywords
traditional medical practitioner, traditional medicine, antiretroviral therapy, HIV, AIDS, mortality, tuberculosis, demographic surveillance system, South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, risk factor
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97845 (URN)10.1186/1472-6882-14-504 (DOI)000349025000001 ()25515165 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mee, P., Collinson, M. A., Madhavan, S., Kabudula, C., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., Kahn, K., . . . Byass, P. (2014). Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study. Global Health Action, 7, Article ID 24826.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study
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2014 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, article id 24826Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities.

DESIGN: This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality.

RESULTS: Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes.

CONCLUSIONS: In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
HIV, mortality, determinants, global health, population health, healthcare access, South Africa
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97436 (URN)10.3402/gha.v7.24826 (DOI)000209740500001 ()25416322 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wellcome trust, 058893/Z/99/AWellcome trust, 069683/Z/02/ZWellcome trust, 069683/Z/08/Z
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Kabudula, C. W., Joubert, J. D., Tuoane-Nkhasi, M., Kahn, K., Rao, C., Gomez-Olive, F. X., . . . Bradshaw, D. (2014). Evaluation of record linkage of mortality data between a health and demographic surveillance system and national civil registration system in South Africa. Population Health Metrics, 12, Article ID 23.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of record linkage of mortality data between a health and demographic surveillance system and national civil registration system in South Africa
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2014 (English)In: Population Health Metrics, ISSN 1478-7954, E-ISSN 1478-7954, Vol. 12, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS) collect independent mortality data that could be used for assessing the quality of mortality data in national civil registration (CR) systems in low- and middle-income countries. However, the use of HDSS data for such purposes depends on the quality of record linkage between the two data sources. We describe and evaluate the quality of record linkage between HDSS and CR mortality data in South Africa with HDSS data from Agincourt HDSS. Methods: We applied deterministic and probabilistic record linkage approaches to mortality records from 2006 to 2009 from the Agincourt HDSS and those in the CR system. Quality of the matches generated by the probabilistic approach was evaluated using sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) calculated from a subset of records that were linked using national identity number. Matched and unmatched records from the Agincourt HDSS were compared to identify characteristics associated with successful matching. In addition, the distribution of background characteristics in all deaths that occurred in 2009 and those linked to CR records was compared to assess systematic bias in the resulting record-linked dataset in the latest time period. Results: Deterministic and probabilistic record linkage approaches combined linked a total of 2264 out of 3726 (60.8%) mortality records from the Agincourt HDSS to those in the CR system. Probabilistic approaches independently linked 1969 (87.0%) of the linked records. In a subset of 708 records that were linked using national identity number, the probabilistic approaches yielded sensitivity of 90.0% and PPV of 98.5%. Records belonging to more vulnerable people, including poorer persons, young children, and non-South Africans were less likely to be matched. Nevertheless, distribution of most background characteristics was similar between all Agincourt HDSS deaths and those matched to CR records in the latest time period. Conclusion: This study shows that record linkage of mortality data from HDSS and CR systems is possible and can be useful in South Africa. The study identifies predictors for death registration and data items and registration system characteristics that could be improved to achieve more optimal future matching possibilities.

Keywords
Health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), Agincourt HDSS, Record linkage, Civil registration system, Death registration, South Africa, Mortality
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94553 (URN)10.1186/s12963-014-0023-z (DOI)000341887000001 ()
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-10-13 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Mee, P., Collinson, M. A., Madhavan, S., Dowling Root, E., Tollman, S. M., Byass, P. & Kahn, K. (2014). Evidence for localised HIV related micro-epidemics associated with the decentralised provision of antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: a spatio-temporal analysis of changing mortality patterns (2007-2010). Journal of Global Health, 4(1), Article ID 010403.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence for localised HIV related micro-epidemics associated with the decentralised provision of antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: a spatio-temporal analysis of changing mortality patterns (2007-2010)
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Global Health, ISSN 2047-2978, E-ISSN 2047-2986, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 010403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In this study we analysed the spatial and temporal changes in patterns of mortality over a period when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was rolled out in a rural region of north-eastern South Africa. Previous studies have identified localised concentrated HIV related sub-epidemics and recommended that micro-level analyses be carried out in order to direct focused interventions.

METHODS: Data from an ongoing health and socio-demographic surveillance study was used in the analysis. The follow-up was divided into two periods, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010, representing the times immediately before and after the effects on mortality of the decentralised ART provision from a newly established local health centre would be expected to be evident. The study population at the start of the analysis was approximately 73 000 individuals. Data were aggregated by village and also using a 2 × 2 km grid. We identified villages, grid squares and regions in the site where mortality rates within each time period or rate ratios between the periods differed significantly from the overall trends. We used clustering techniques to identify cause-specific mortality hotspots.

FINDINGS: Comparing the two periods, there was a 30% decrease in age and gender standardised adult HIV-related and TB (HIV/TB) mortality with no change in mortality due to other causes. There was considerable spatial heterogeneity in the mortality patterns. Areas separated by 2 to 4 km with very different epidemic trajectories were identified. There was evidence that the impact of ART in reducing HIV/TB mortality was greatest in communities with higher mortality rates in the earlier period.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the value of conducting high resolution spatial analyses in order to understand how local micro-epidemics contribute to changes seen over a wider area. Such analyses can support targeted interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edinburgh University Global Health Society, 2014
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91960 (URN)10.7189/jogh.04.010403 (DOI)000209633200008 ()24976962 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Streatfield, P. K., Khan, W. A., Bhuiya, A., Hanifi, S. M., Alam, N., Millogo, O., . . . Byass, P. (2014). HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites. Global Health Action, 7, Article ID 25370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites
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2014 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, article id 25370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data.

OBJECTIVE: To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia.

DESIGN: Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population.

RESULTS: The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates.

CONCLUSIONS: Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CoAction Publishing, 2014
Keywords
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, Africa, Asia, Mortality, INDEPTH Network, Verbal Autopsy, InterVA
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97429 (URN)10.3402/gha.v7.25370 (DOI)000209735300001 ()25377330 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wellcome trust, 058893/Z/99/AWellcome trust, 069683/Z/02/ZWellcome trust, 084538Wellcome trust, 085477/Z/08/ZWellcome trust, 091758Wellcome trust, WT081993MA
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Madhavan, S., Mee, P. & Collinson, M. (2014). Kinship in Practice: Spatial Distribution of Children's Kin Networks. Journal of Southern African Studies, 40(2), 401-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinship in Practice: Spatial Distribution of Children's Kin Networks
2014 (English)In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 401-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The examination of co-residential household arrangements has been a mainstay in demographic analysis, based on the assumption that those with whom one lives are the most important influences in one's life. In contrast, we know far less about the spaces not shared but none the less crucially important in the lives of children. In this analysis, we bring together detailed ethnographic data on kin connectivity with geographical information system (GIS) data in a rural area of South Africa, in order to: 1) describe the spatial distribution of kin from a child's perspective, with special attention paid to the role of circular migrants who constitute a critical point of spatial dispersion; 2) examine how type of kinship (maternal vs paternal) and 3) socio-economic status intersect with spatial distribution. Our analysis uses a three-category typology of kin spatial arrangement that reflects employment constraints, patterns of union formation and norms of kin obligation. Specifically, we find that 1) the high-density rural node with extensive dispersion is associated with economic and union stability and access to maternal and paternal kin; whereas 2) the rural node with limited dispersion faces greater economic vulnerability and often operates in the absence of formal unions; and 3) the rural node with minimal dispersion offers the least amount of economic security and is almost always dominated by single mothers reliant on maternal kin.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90460 (URN)10.1080/03057070.2014.906211 (DOI)000335211800011 ()
Available from: 2014-07-07 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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