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Sténs, A. & Mårald, E. (2020). “Forest property rights under attack”: Actors, networks and claims about forest ownership in the Swedish press 2014–2017. Forest Policy and Economics, 111, Article ID 102038.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Forest property rights under attack”: Actors, networks and claims about forest ownership in the Swedish press 2014–2017
2020 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 111, article id 102038Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sweden is a leading country in governance of property rights, according to global assessments, but Swedish landowners currently argue that their forest property rights are being eroded. Thus, the aim of this article is to investigate when and why the current debate on forest property rights came about, and its resemblance to discussion in an ‘echo-chamber’. This refers to an arena in which information is accessed from limited sources and a small number of actors with ideological homogeneity may exert substantial influence and reinforce established opinions. Hence, it may spread disinformation, increase polemic tensions, and hamper deliberative policy processes in society. We assess the resemblance by identifying where the issue is debated in printed news media, the active actors, the interests they represent and how they problematize property rights, i.e. the claims they make and the claims’ homogeneity. Our results show that the debate has intensified in recent years, but several issues are not new. The debate is mainly limited to the Swedish rural business press and rural conservative press. Moreover, the main claim-makers are representatives of land and forest owner organizations, and members of agrarian and conservative political parties, which have close organizational and individual connections, thereby forming a metaphorical ‘chamber’. The ‘echo’ consists of repetitive claims about withdrawal and management rights, with no efforts to examine and contextualize complex aspects of private property rights in a changing society. The debate about forest ownership in an echo-chamber is problematic in several ways. It hampers efforts of claim-makers in the chamber to reach out, undermines current systems’ legitimacy, and locks important questions about sustainable forestry and property rights into a narrow societal sphere.

Keywords
Forestry; Conservation policy; Echo-chamber; Forest property rights; Printed press
National Category
History History of Ideas
Research subject
History Of Sciences and Ideas; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165965 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2019.102038 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074728277 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Är äganderätten hotad? En historisk jämförelse av gränserna för den privata äganderätten till skogsmark
Note

Finansierat av Skogssällskapet

Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-06
Sténs, A., Roberge, J.-M., Lofmarck, E., Lindahl, K. B., Felton, A., Widmark, C., . . . Ranius, T. (2019). From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous-cover forestry in Sweden. Biodiversity and Conservation, 28(13), 3547-3574
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous-cover forestry in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 13, p. 3547-3574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

Keywords
Environmental history, Environmental policy, Forest biodiversity, Biodiversity conservation, Policy take
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165670 (URN)10.1007/s10531-019-01836-2 (DOI)000488929900009 ()
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Felton, A., Löfroth, T., Angelstam, P., Gustafsson, L., Hjältén, J., Felton, A. M., . . . Ranius, T. (2019). Keeping pace with forestry: Multi-scale conservation in a changing production forest matrix. Ambio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Keeping pace with forestry: Multi-scale conservation in a changing production forest matrix
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2019 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The multi-scale approach to conserving forest biodiversity has been used in Sweden since the 1980s, a period defined by increased reserve area and conservation actions within production forests. However, two thousand forest-associated species remain on Sweden's red-list, and Sweden's 2020 goals for sustainable forests are not being met. We argue that ongoing changes in the production forest matrix require more consideration, and that multi-scale conservation must be adapted to, and integrated with, production forest development. To make this case, we summarize trends in habitat provision by Sweden's protected and production forests, and the variety of ways silviculture can affect biodiversity. We discuss how different forestry trajectories affect the type and extent of conservation approaches needed to secure biodiversity, and suggest leverage points for aiding the adoption of diversified silviculture. Sweden's long-term experience with multi-scale conservation and intensive forestry provides insights for other countries trying to conserve species within production landscapes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Biodiversity conservation, Climate change mitigation, Even-aged forestry, Green-tree retention, Habitat loss, Protected areas
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165767 (URN)10.1007/s13280-019-01248-0 (DOI)000495351000001 ()31529355 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-05
Wikström, E. & Sténs, A. (2019). Problematising refugee migrants in the Swedish forestry sector. Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research, 25(1), 63-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problematising refugee migrants in the Swedish forestry sector
2019 (English)In: Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research, ISSN 1024-2589, E-ISSN 1996-7284, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, ideas behind current Swedish efforts to integrate refugees in ‘green’ industries are analysed. We ask why the employment of refugees in forestry, a sector historically and globally notorious for its abuse of migrant workers, has come to be regarded as a solution in official Swedish migration policy. A discourse analytical approach is applied, analysing what the arguments are for introducing refugees to forestry work and how the forest, as a space, is depicted and used discursively as a means for refugee integration. The sources for the analyses consist of articles appearing in the printed press from 2015 to 2017. Three main problem discourses are identified: the ‘labour shortage’ discourse, the ‘refugees in need of work’ discourse and the ‘forest as a health-promoting learning environment’ discourse. The hazardous aspects of forestry work or the fact that refugees might be overqualified for the jobs offered are generally left unproblematised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Migrant workers, refugees, integration, forestry work, Sweden, ‘refugee crisis’, ‘What-is-the-problem-represented-to-be?’ (WPR) approach, media analysis
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156198 (URN)10.1177/1024258919827133 (DOI)000462046500007 ()
Note

Special Issue: SI

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Bjärstig, T. & Sténs, A. (2018). Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners. Small-scale Forestry, 17(1), 125-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners
2018 (English)In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer, 2018
Keywords
Social values, Multifunctionality, Family forest owners (FFOs), Rural development, Sweden
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141094 (URN)10.1007/s11842-017-9379-9 (DOI)000424912100008 ()
Available from: 2017-10-25 Created: 2017-10-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Ranius, T., Hämäläinen, A., Egnell, G., Olsson, B., Eklöf, K., Stendahl, J., . . . Felton, A. (2018). The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: a synthesis. Journal of Environmental Management, 209, 409-425
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: a synthesis
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 209, p. 409-425Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization), though these may also be associated with adverse environmental impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Bioenergy, Clear-felling, Environment, Forestry, Slash, Stumps, Whole-tree harvesting
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145369 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.048 (DOI)000425074400040 ()29309965 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, K. B., Sandström, C. & Stens, A. (2017). Alternative pathways to sustainability?: Comparing forest governance models. Forest Policy and Economics, 77, 69-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative pathways to sustainability?: Comparing forest governance models
2017 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134232 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2016.10.008 (DOI)000397552600008 ()
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Sandström, C., Beland Lindahl, K. & Sténs, A. (2017). Comparing forest governance models. Forest Policy and Economics, 77, 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing forest governance models
2017 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 1-5Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134230 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2016.10.007 (DOI)000397552600001 ()
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Ranius, T., Rudolphi, J., Sténs, A. & Erland, M. (2017). Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes. Ambio, 46(6), 621-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes
2017 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

Keywords
Conservation biology, Forest biofuels, Policy-science interface, Synthesis, Uncertainties
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Entomology; Conservation Biology; History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138182 (URN)10.1007/s13280-017-0913-y (DOI)000410711600001 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Nummelin, T., Widmark, C., Riala, M., Sténs, A., Nordström, E.-M. & Nordin, A. (2017). Forest futures by Swedish students: developing a mind mapping method for data collection. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 32(8), 807-817
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest futures by Swedish students: developing a mind mapping method for data collection
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 807-817Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forests are an important natural resource in Sweden. They are used for multiple purposes, for example, providing economic returns from timber harvest, conservation of biodiversity, provision of wild berries and mushrooms and recreational benefits. People's perceptions of forests and forest use are currently under transformation due to drivers like globalization and urbanization. The aim of this study was to analyse in particular Swedish university student's visions of future forests using a newly developed survey method based on mind mapping. An online survey with mind map technique was used to collect data from university students in Umeå, northern Sweden. The study focused on features of forests, products derived from forests and activities in forests. The results indicate that students regard ecological, social and economic aspects of forests as important for future forests and the use of them. In particular, the role of non-wood forest products, like berries and mushrooms, as well as recreational features of forests were central to many of the students. The multitude of different visions suggests that forest management decisions of today, directing the future of forests, need to consider the multiple use of forests to be able to satisfy forest preferences also of younger generations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Forest management, forest activities, features of forest, forest products, cross-sectional survey
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138250 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2017.1287303 (DOI)000413600600019 ()
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Projects
Integration of information regarding cultural ecosystem services in private forest management plans [2015-06586_Vinnova]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2739-0497

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