umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 58) Show all publications
Persson, M., Futaana, Y., Nilsson, H., Wieser, G. S., Hamrin, M., Fedorov, A., . . . Barabash, S. (2019). Heavy Ion Flows in the Upper Ionosphere of the Venusian North Pole. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(6), 4597-4607
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heavy Ion Flows in the Upper Ionosphere of the Venusian North Pole
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 6, p. 4597-4607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate the heavy ion density and velocity in the Venusian upper ionosphere near the North Pole, using the Ion Mass Analyzer, a part of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms 4, together with the magnetic field instruments on Venus Express. The measurements were made during June-July 2014, covering the aerobraking campaign with lowered altitude measurements (similar to 130 km). The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400-km altitude. A clear trend of dusk-to-dawn heavy ion flow across the polar ionosphere was found, with speeds of similar to 2-10 km/s. In addition, the flow has a significant downward radial velocity component. The flow pattern does not depend on the interplanetary magnetic field directions nor the ionospheric magnetization states. Instead, we suggest a thermal pressure gradient between the equatorial and polar terminator regions, induced by the decrease in density between the regions, as the dominant mechanism driving the ion flow. Plain Language Summary We have calculated the ion density and velocities in the Venusian polar ionosphere using measurements from the Ion Mass Analyzer on board the Venus Express spacecraft. During June-July 2014 the periapsis was lowered to similar to 130 km, which allowed for measurements down to low altitudes of the ionosphere near the North Pole. The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400 km, which is similar to what was found near the equatorial region by the Pioneer Venus mission. In addition, there is a clear trend of dusk-to-dawn flow, along the terminator, for the heavy ions. This is surprising, as a general flow from day-to-night is expected for the Venusian ionosphere due to the long nights and significant heating of the dayside upper atmosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field direction does not appear to affect the ion flow pattern. Instead, we propose a thermal pressure gradient as the dominant accelerating mechanism, induced by the decrease in density from the equator toward the pole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162017 (URN)10.1029/2018JA026271 (DOI)000477723100049 ()
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
De Spiegeleer, A., Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Volwerk, M., Andersson, L., Karlsson, T., . . . Kistler, L. M. (2019). Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(4), 2736-2754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2736-2754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plasma dynamics in Earth's magnetotail is often studied using moments of the distribution function, which results in losing information on the kinetic properties of the plasma. To better understand oscillatory flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet, we investigate two events, one in each hemisphere, in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the lobes using the 2-D ion distribution function from the Cluster 4 spacecraft. In this case study, the oscillatory flows are a manifestation of repeated ion flux enhancements with pitch angle changing from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and from 180 degrees to 0 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Similar pitch angle signatures are observed seven times in about 80 min for the Southern Hemisphere event and three times in about 80 min for the Northern Hemisphere event. The ion flux enhancements observed for both events are slightly shifted in time between different energy channels, indicating a possible time-of-flight effect from which we estimate that the source of particle is located similar to 5-25R(E) and similar to 40-107R(E) tailward of the spacecraft for the Southern and Northern Hemisphere event, respectively. Using a test particle simulation, we obtain similar to 21-46 R-E for the Southern Hemisphere event and tailward of X similar to - 65R(E) (outside the validity region of the model) for the Northern Hemisphere event. We discuss possible sources that could cause the enhancements of ion flux.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162349 (URN)10.1029/2018JA026116 (DOI)000477707800027 ()
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Lindkvist, J., Lindqvist, P.-A., Ergun, R. E. & Giles, B. L. (2018). Bow shock generator current systems: MMS observations of possible current closure. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123, 242-258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bow shock generator current systems: MMS observations of possible current closure
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, p. 242-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi‐perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y> 0 (<0), and oppositely directed for northward IMF. This indicates current closure across the equatorial magnetosheath, and it is observed for IMF clock angles near 0∘ and 180∘. To our knowledge, these are the first observational evidence for bow shock current closure across the magnetosheath. Since we observe no clear signatures of |J⊥| decreasing toward large |Y| we suggest that the main region of current closure is further tailward, outside MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north‐south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143055 (URN)10.1002/2017JA024826 (DOI)000425637600018 ()
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Vaverka, J., Nakamura, T., Kero, J., Mann, I., De Spiegeleer, A., Hamrin, M., . . . Pellinen-Wannberg, A. (2018). Comparison of Dust Impact and Solitary Wave Signatures Detected by Multiple Electric Field Antennas Onboard the MMS Spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(8), 6119-6129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Dust Impact and Solitary Wave Signatures Detected by Multiple Electric Field Antennas Onboard the MMS Spacecraft
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 6119-6129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dust impact detection by electric field instruments is a relatively new method. However, the influence of dust impacts on electric field measurements is not completely understood and explained. A better understanding is very important for reliable dust impact identification, especially in environments with low dust impact rate. Using data from Earth-orbiting Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) spacecraft, we present a study of various pulses detected simultaneously by multiple electric field antennas in the monopole (probe-to-spacecraft potential measurement) and dipole (probe-to-probe potential measurement) configurations. The study includes data obtained during an impact of a millimeter-sized object. We show that the identification of dust impacts by a single antenna is a very challenging issue in environments where solitary waves are commonly present and that some pulses can be easily misinterpreted as dust impacts. We used data from multiple antennas to distinguish between changes in the spacecraft potential (dust impact) and structures in the ambient plasma or electric field. Our results indicate that an impact cloud is in some cases able to influence the potential of the electric field antenna during its expansion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
Keywords
dust, solitary waves, electric field instruments, MMS, dust impacts
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152903 (URN)10.1029/2018JA025380 (DOI)000445731300002 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 110/14
Available from: 2018-10-30 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Pitkänen, T., Kullen, A., Shi, Q. Q., Hamrin, M., De Spiegeleer, A. & Nishimura, Y. (2018). Convection electric field and plasma convection in a twisted magnetotail: t THEMIS case study 1-2 January 2009. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(9), 7486-7497
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convection electric field and plasma convection in a twisted magnetotail: t THEMIS case study 1-2 January 2009
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 9, p. 7486-7497Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate THEMIS satellite measurements made in a tail-aligned constellation during a time interval on 1-2 January 2009, which has previously been attributed to an interval of an interplanetary magnetic fieldB(y)-driven magnetotail twisting. We find evidence for that the orientation of the convection electric field in the tail is twist-mode dependent. For earthward flow and a negative twist (induced tail B-y < 0), the electric field is found to have northward E-z and tailward E-x components. During a positive twist (induced tail B-y > 0), the directions of E-z and E-x are reversed. The E-y component shows the expected dawn-to-dusk direction for earthward flow. The electric field components preserve their orientation across the neutral sheet, and a quasi-collinear field is observed irrespective to the tail distance. The electric field associated with the tailward flow has an opposite direction compared to the earthward flow for the negative twist. For the positive twist, the results are less clear. The corresponding plasma convection and thus the magnetic flux transport have an opposite dawn-dusk direction above and below the neutral sheet. The directions depend on the tail twist mode. The hemispherically asymmetric earthward plasma flows are suggested to be a manifestation of an asymmetric Dungey cycle in a twisted magnetotail. The role of tailward flows deserve further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153821 (URN)10.1029/2018JA025688 (DOI)000448376600025 ()
Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, J., Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Nilsson, H., Simon Wedlund, C., Kallio, E., . . . Karlsson, T. (2018). Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres: Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 616, Article ID A81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres: Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. We wish to investigate the energy conversion between particles and electromagnetic fields and determine the location where it occurs in the plasma environment of comets.

Methods. We used a hybrid plasma model that included photoionization, and we considered two cases of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux. Other parameters corresponded to the conditions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a heliocentric distance of 1.5 AU.

Results. We find that a shock-like structure is formed upstream of the comet and acts as an electromagnetic generator, similar to the bow shock at Earth that slows down the solar wind. The Poynting flux transports electromagnetic energy toward the inner coma, where newly born cometary ions are accelerated. Upstream of the shock-like structure, we find local energy transfer from solar wind ions to cometary ions. We show that mass loading can be a local process with a direct transfer of energy, but also part of a dynamo system with electromagnetic generators and loads.

Conclusions. The energization of cometary ions is governed by a dynamo system for weak ionization, but changes into a large conversion region with local transfer of energy directly from solar wind protons for high ionization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2018
Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Sun: UV radiation, solar wind, methods: numerical, plasmas, acceleration of particles
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148207 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732353 (DOI)000442541100001 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 201/15Swedish National Space Board, 112/13Swedish Research Council, 2015-04187
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Persson, M., Futaana, Y., Fedorov, A., Nilsson, H., Hamrin, M. & Barabash, S. (2018). H+/O+ Escape Rate Ratio in the Venus Magnetotail and its Dependence on the Solar Cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(20), 10805-10811
Open this publication in new window or tab >>H+/O+ Escape Rate Ratio in the Venus Magnetotail and its Dependence on the Solar Cycle
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 20, p. 10805-10811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fundamental question for the atmospheric evolution of Venus is how much water-related material escapes from Venus to space. In this study, we calculate the nonthermal escape of H+ and O+ ions through the Venusian magnetotail and its dependence on the solar cycle. We separate 8 years of data obtained from the ion mass analyzer on Venus Express into solar minimum and maximum. The average escape of H+ decreased from 7.6.10(24) (solar minimum) to 2.1.10(24) s(-1) (solar maximum), while a smaller decrease was found for O+: 2.9.10(24) to 2.0.10(24) s(-1). As a result, the H+/O+ flux ratio decreases from 2.6 to 1.1. This implies that the escape of hydrogen and oxygen could have been below the stoichiometric ratio of water for Venus in its early history under the more active Sun.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154361 (URN)10.1029/2018GL079454 (DOI)000451510500002 ()2-s2.0-85055202374 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Gunell, H., Maggiolo, R., Nilsson, H., Stenberg Wieser, G., Slapak, R., Lindkvist, J., . . . De Keyser, J. (2018). Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape [Letter to the editor]. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 614, Article ID L3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why an intrinsic magnetic field does not protect a planet against atmospheric escape
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 614, article id L3Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence or absence of a magnetic field determines the nature of how a planet interacts with the solar wind and what paths are available for atmospheric escape. Magnetospheres form both around magnetised planets, such as Earth, and unmagnetised planets, like Mars and Venus, but it has been suggested that magnetised planets are better protected against atmospheric loss. However, the observed mass escape rates from these three planets are similar (in the approximate (0.5–2) kg s−1 range), putting this latter hypothesis into question. Modelling the effects of a planetary magnetic field on the major atmospheric escape processes, we show that the escape rate can be higher for magnetised planets over a wide range of magnetisations due to escape of ions through the polar caps and cusps. Therefore, contrary to what has previously been believed, magnetisation is not a sufficient condition for protecting a planet from atmospheric loss. Estimates of the atmospheric escape rates from exoplanets must therefore address all escape processes and their dependence on the planet’s magnetisation.

Keywords
Planets and satellites: magnetic fields, Planets and satellites: atmospheres, plasmas
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Space and Plasma Physics; Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148205 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201832934 (DOI)000435753000001 ()2-s2.0-85049562755 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Vaverka, J., Pellinen-Wannberg, A., Kero, J., Mann, I., De Spiegeleer, A., Hamrin, M., . . . Pitkänen, T. (2017). Detection of EMPs generated by meteoroid impacts on the MMS spacecraft and problems with signal interpretation. In: 2017 XXXIInd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI GASS): . Paper presented at 32nd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International-Union-of-Radio-Science (URSI GASS), Montreal, QC, Canada, 19-26 August, 2017. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of EMPs generated by meteoroid impacts on the MMS spacecraft and problems with signal interpretation
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 2017 XXXIInd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI GASS), IEEE, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Signatures of hypervelocity dust impacts detected by electric field instruments are still not completely understood. We have used the electric field instrument onboard one of the MMS spacecraft orbiting the Earth since 2015 to study various pulses in the measured electric field detected simultaneously by multiple antennas. This unique instrument allows a detailed investigation of registered waveforms. The preliminary results shown that the solitary waves can generate similar pulses as dust impacts and detected pulses can easily by misinterpreted when only one antenna is used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163055 (URN)10.23919/URSIGASS.2017.8105218 (DOI)000463723600268 ()978-90-825987-0-4 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd General Assembly and Scientific Symposium of the International-Union-of-Radio-Science (URSI GASS), Montreal, QC, Canada, 19-26 August, 2017
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Vaverka, J., Pellinen-Wannberg, A., Kero, J., Mann, I., De Spiegeleer, A., Hamrin, M., . . . Pitkänen, T. (2017). Detection of meteoroid hypervelocity impacts on the Cluster spacecraft: First results. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 122(6), 6485-6494
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of meteoroid hypervelocity impacts on the Cluster spacecraft: First results
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 6, p. 6485-6494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the first study of dust impact events on one of the Earth-orbiting Cluster satellites. The events were identified in the measurements of the wide band data (WBD) instrument on board the satellite operating in monopole configuration. Since 2009 the instrument is operating in this configuration due to the loss of three electric probes and is therefore measuring the potential between the only operating antenna and the spacecraft body. Our study shows that the WBD instrument on Cluster 1 is able to detect pulses generated by dust impacts and discusses four such events. The presence of instrumental effects, intensive natural waves, noncontinuous sampling modes, and the automatic gain control complicates this detection. Due to all these features, we conclude that the Cluster spacecraft are not ideal for dust impact studies. We show that the duration and amplitudes of the pulses recorded by Cluster are similar to pulses detected by STEREO, and the shape of the pulses can be described with the model of the recollection of impact cloud electrons by the positively charged spacecraft. We estimate that the detected impacts were generated by micron-sized grains with velocities in the order of tens of km/s.

Keywords
hypervelocity impact, dust detection, interplanetary dust
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138045 (URN)10.1002/2016JA023755 (DOI)000405534800040 ()
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Projects
Energy and mass transfer related to bursty bulk flows [78/11_SNSB]; Umeå UniversityThe interplay between plasma flows and magnetic fields in Earth's magnetotail - A PhD project on the importance of instabilities [105/14_SNSB]; Umeå UniversityThe interplay between plasma flows and magnetic fields in Earth's magnetotail - A PhD project on the importance of instabilities [271/14_SNSB]; Umeå UniversityProlongation of postdoc position for Timo Pitkänen: Energy and mass transfer related to bursty bulk flows [77/14 P_SNSB]; Umeå UniversityWave-particle interactions in the complex environment of a comet [201/15_SNSB]; Umeå UniversityGeoeffectiveness of bow shock processes [2018-03623_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2043-4442

Search in DiVA

Show all publications