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Carlquist, Jonas
Publications (10 of 38) Show all publications
Carlquist, J. & Kardell, Ö. (2019). Indulgences, wooden sculptures and vaulting: The economy of the parish church in Sweden 1430-1519. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(2), 193-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indulgences, wooden sculptures and vaulting: The economy of the parish church in Sweden 1430-1519
2019 (English)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 193-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish medievalists have presented two theories to explain how the investments in vaulting, murals and wooden sculptures in parish churches were made possible from the 1430s and onwards. Everyone agrees that the boom in construction activity is the first discernible sign of recovery after the economic set-back that the Black Death (1350) and recurring outbursts of plague in the following century brought on the country. Primary source material is scant. Only seven parish churches have left us records of their economic activity. One theory posits that the process of vaulting and church decoration was driven chiefly by donations from the nobility. The second theory relies heavily on the fact that land rent and land prices plummeted immediately after the Black Death and remained low. From the middle of the 15th century even freeholders enjoyed considerably reduced tax rates. This development left a bigger share of the agricultural surplus in the hands of the peasant community, who spent part of it on their parish churches. By creating a full picture of church land transactions (cathedrals, monasteries and parish churches), comparing the level of donations of land to the church with the level of business (buying, selling, exchanging) this study reveals that the parish church had a hard time attracting donors; their share was only five per cent of the total amount of donations 1430-1519. A special investigation was made of parish churches where vaulting had been carried out and supplied with an antiquarian description, which were scrutinised for traces of noble presence, chiefly coats of arms, which could suggest that local nobility had been involved in reconstruction or decoration of church premises. Only one fifth of the churches showed such signs of noble presence. In a third investigation, indulgences issued for parish churches were analysed as a new factor. International research has pointed out that the issuing of such indulgences had a practical economic intent as well as a celestial purpose: to offer a perpetual source of income for the church's building fund, the fabrica. Seven per cent of the estimated total number of parish churches - 103 of a total of 1500 - were issued such letters. The overall evidence therefore favours the second theory, with the input from the nobility seriously down-played but still present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2019
Keywords
Late medieval Sweden, parish churches, vaulting, church decoration, indulgences, donations, land transactions
National Category
Religious Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161614 (URN)000472591800002 ()
Note

[Plenaravlat, kultföremål och valvslagning: Sockenkyrkans ekonomi i Sverige 1430–1519]

Artikeln tillgänglig på nätet sex månader efter utgivning.

Available from: 2019-07-12 Created: 2019-07-12 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. & Kardell, Ö. (2019). Plenaravlat, kultföremål och valvslagning: Sockenkyrkans ekonomi i Sverige 1430-1519. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(2), 193-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plenaravlat, kultföremål och valvslagning: Sockenkyrkans ekonomi i Sverige 1430-1519
2019 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 193-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indulgences, wooden sculptures and vaulting: The economy of the parish church in Sweden 1430–1519

Swedish medievalists have presented two theories to explain how the investmentsin vaulting, murals and wooden sculptures in parish churches weremade possible from the 1430s and onwards. Everyone agrees that the boomin construction activity is the first discernible sign of recovery after the economicset-back that the Black Death (1350) and recurring outbursts of plaguein the following century brought on the country. Primary source material isscant. Only seven parish churches have left us records of their economic activity.One theory posits that the process of vaulting and church decorationwas driven chiefly by donations from the nobility. The second theory reliesheavily on the fact that land rent and land prices plummeted immediatelyafter the Black Death and remained low. From the middle of the 15th centuryeven freeholders enjoyed considerably reduced tax rates. This developmentleft a bigger share of the agricultural surplus in the hands of the peasantcommunity, who spent part of it on their parish churches.

By creating a full picture of church land transactions (cathedrals, monasteriesand parish churches), comparing the level of donations of land to thechurch with the level of business (buying, selling, exchanging) this studyreveals that the parish church had a hard time attracting donors; their sharewas only five per cent of the total amount of donations 1430–1519. A specialinvestigation was made of parish churches where vaulting had been carriedout and supplied with an antiquarian description, which were scrutinised fortraces of noble presence, chiefly coats of arms, which could suggest that localnobility had been involved in reconstruction or decoration of church premises.Only one fifth of the churches showed such signs of noble presence. Ina third investigation, indulgences issued for parish churches were analysed asa new factor. International research has pointed out that the issuing of suchindulgences had a practical economic intent as well as a celestial purpose: tooffer a perpetual source of income for the church’s building fund, the fabrica.Seven per cent of the estimated total number of parish churches – 103 of a total of 1 500 – were issued such letters. The overall evidence thereforefavours the second theory, with the input from the nobility seriously downplayedbut still present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2019
Keywords
Late medieval Sweden, psrish churches, vaulting, church decoration, indulgences, donations, land transactions
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159501 (URN)
Note

Artikeln tillgänglig i fulltext sex månader efter utgivning. 

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-11-14
Carlquist, J. (2017). Philology as explanation for historical contexts. In: Harry Lönnroth (Ed.), Philology matters!: Essays on the art of reading slowly (pp. 75-96). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Philology as explanation for historical contexts
2017 (English)In: Philology matters!: Essays on the art of reading slowly / [ed] Harry Lönnroth, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017, p. 75-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017
Series
Medieval and renaissance authors and texts, ISSN 0925-7683 ; 19
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
language studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139471 (URN)10.1163/9789004349568_006 (DOI)978-90-0431-511-2 (ISBN)978-90-04-34956-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J., Pfister, L., Åkerlund, U. & Stjernström, O. (2017). Språk och planering. Plan (1), 48-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Språk och planering
2017 (Swedish)In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 1, p. 48-51Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Föreningen för samhällsplanering, 2017
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132698 (URN)881251 (Local ID)881251 (Archive number)881251 (OAI)
Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. (2015). Introduction: Words and Matter: the Virgin Mary in Late Medieval Parish Life. In: Jonas Carlquist and Virginia Langum (Ed.), Words and Matter: The Virgin Mary in Late Medieval and Early Modern Parish Life (pp. 8-15). Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et mediævalia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Words and Matter: the Virgin Mary in Late Medieval Parish Life
2015 (English)In: Words and Matter: The Virgin Mary in Late Medieval and Early Modern Parish Life / [ed] Jonas Carlquist and Virginia Langum, Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et mediævalia , 2015, p. 8-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et mediævalia, 2015
Series
Runica et mediævalia. Scripta minora, ISSN 1103-7989 ; 24
National Category
History of Religions
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112797 (URN)978-91-88568-64-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. (2015). Late medieval reading of Marian sculptures from Swedish parish churches. In: Jonathan Adams (Ed.), Østnordisk filologi: nu og i fremtiden (pp. 197-217). Köpenhamn: Syddansk Universitetsforlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Late medieval reading of Marian sculptures from Swedish parish churches
2015 (English)In: Østnordisk filologi: nu og i fremtiden / [ed] Jonathan Adams, Köpenhamn: Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2015, p. 197-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Köpenhamn: Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2015
Series
Selskab for Østnordisk filologi, ISSN 978-87-7674-868-5 ; 1
Keywords
filologi, medeltiden, kyrkokonst, liturgi, böner
National Category
Specific Literatures
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104876 (URN)978-87-7674-868-5 (ISBN)
Projects
Imitatio Mariae - Jungfru Maria som förebild i det medeltida Sverige
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Ingår även i serie:

Unisversitets-Jubilæets danske Samfund ; 587

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. & Langum, V. (Eds.). (2015). Words and Matter: The Virgin Mary in Late Medieval and Early Modern Parish Life (1ed.). Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et Mediaevalia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Words and Matter: The Virgin Mary in Late Medieval and Early Modern Parish Life
2015 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et Mediaevalia, 2015. p. 253 Edition: 1
Series
Runica et Mediaevalia, ISSN 1103-7989 ; 24
Keywords
Virgin Mary, Parish Life, Art history, Literature, Cult
National Category
History
Research subject
church history
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111968 (URN)978-91-88568-64-9 (ISBN)
Projects
Imitatio Mariae
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-27 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. (2014). Maria - en bortglömd förebild. Forskning och Framsteg (9), 42-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maria - en bortglömd förebild
2014 (Swedish)In: Forskning och Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 9, p. 42-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen Forskning & Framsteg, 2014
Keywords
Jungfru Maria. medeltid, kyrkokonst, fornsvenska texter
National Category
Specific Languages History
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95563 (URN)
Projects
Imitatio Mariae - Jungfru Maria som förebild i senmedeltidens Sverige
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 162015723
Available from: 2014-10-31 Created: 2014-10-31 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. (2014). Rules in a Book: The Regulation of Daily Life at the Nunnery of Vadstena Abbey. In: Lena Rohrbach (Ed.), The Power of the Book: Medial Approaches to Medieval Nordic Legal Manuscripts (pp. 163-177). Berlin: Nordeuropa-Institut der Humboldt-Universität
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rules in a Book: The Regulation of Daily Life at the Nunnery of Vadstena Abbey
2014 (English)In: The Power of the Book: Medial Approaches to Medieval Nordic Legal Manuscripts / [ed] Lena Rohrbach, Berlin: Nordeuropa-Institut der Humboldt-Universität , 2014, p. 163-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Nordeuropa-Institut der Humboldt-Universität, 2014
Series
Berliner Beiträge zur Skandinavistik, ISSN 0933-4009 ; 19
Keywords
medeltid, Vadstena kloster, regelsamlingar, nunnor, handskrifter
National Category
Specific Literatures
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90907 (URN)978-3-932406-34-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Imitatio Mariae
Available from: 2014-07-02 Created: 2014-07-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Carlquist, J. (2014). The Use of Marian Sculptures in Late Medieval Swedish Parish Churches. Collegium Medievale, 27, 114-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of Marian Sculptures in Late Medieval Swedish Parish Churches
2014 (English)In: Collegium Medievale, ISSN 0801-9282, E-ISSN 2387-6700, Vol. 27, p. 114-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2014
Keywords
Marian sculptures, Old Swedish, Church history, Material philology
National Category
Specific Literatures
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106344 (URN)
Projects
Imitatio Mariae: Jungfru Maria som förebild i det medeltida Sverige
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-07-10 Created: 2015-07-10 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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