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Paulin, J., Nordin, M., Nyback, M.-H. & Nordin, S. (2019). Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 92(1), 59-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population
2019 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We investigated the association between hyperacusis and aspects of psychosocial work environment in a general population. The objectives were to investigate (1) prevalence and characteristics (among age, sex, access to social support at home, education, smoking, physical exercise, and perceived general health) of hyperacusis in a general working population and (2) associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial factors in the work environment. The psychosocial work aspects included effort, reward, overcommitment, worry, and social and emotional support.

Methods: Using data from a sample stratified for age and sex from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study in Finland, currently employed participants with self-reported hyperacusis and referents were compared on questionnaire instruments quantifying six aspects of their psychosocial work environment.

Results: Among 856 currently employed participants, 47 constituted a hyperacusis group and 809 a reference group. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher than the referents on worry at work, social support at work, and reward at work, but not on emotional support at work, work overcommitment, or effort at work. About 40% of the hyperacusis group scored on the upper quartile of the three former work environment factors, with odds ratios ranging from 1.91 to 2.56.

Conclusions: The results suggest that worrying about aspects at work, perceiving low social support, and not perceiving being rewarded at work are associated with hyperacusis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Psychosocial work environment, Effort-reward imbalance, Worry at work, Social support, Emotional support
National Category
Applied Psychology Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155771 (URN)10.1007/s00420-018-1356-x (DOI)000455144300005 ()30194539 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Paulin, J. (2019). Sound intolerance: characteristics, psychosocial work factors and reactions to exposure. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sound intolerance: characteristics, psychosocial work factors and reactions to exposure
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sound intolerance refers to an adverse reaction to sounds at sound pressure levels most people do not find bothersome. It is sometimes associated with hearing loss and tinnitus, but neither conditions are a prerequisite for being intolerant to sounds. The processes underlying the heightened reactions to sound, or how sound intolerance is related to other afflictions is not fully known, and research in this area can still be described as being in an early stage. This thesis aims to broaden the knowledge about sound intolerance and the sub-category of hyperacusis by using cross-sectional epidemiological and quasi-experimental methods of inquiry.

The thesis consists of three studies, each approaching the subject from a different perspective with the aim to better understand various characteristics of sound intolerance in general, its relation to psychosocial factors in the work environment, and its effects during noise exposure. Studies I & II are cross-sectional studies using two different data sets with similar design. Study I was based on data from a stratified sample in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study. It examined the characteristics, background descriptions and comorbidities of self-reported and physician diagnosed individuals with hyperacusis, and compared them to a healthy referent group. Analyses revealed that a majority of both hyperacusis groups actively tried to avoid sound sources, and experienced that they for the most part could affect the environment to make it less noisy. There were significantly increased risks for other diagnosed illnesses in the hyperacusis groups compared to the healthy referent group, with large odds ratios (ORs) for the psychiatric illnesses anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and exhaustion syndrome. Other common illnesses were tinnitus, hearing impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. Study II used data from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study and focused on the psychosocial work environment for people with hyperacusis. Working participants with hyperacusis who were employed/on leave of absence/paternal leave/long-term sick listed were compared to a working sample without hyperacusis on measures of effort-reward imbalance, work over commitment, emotional and social support and worry at work. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher on worry, social support, and reward, whereas the groups did not differ significantly with respect to emotional support, over commitment or effort. In the final study, a quasi-experimental design was employed to investigate how individuals with sound intolerance react to noise exposure over time, in terms of perceived sound intensity, unpleasantness, rated distractibility, symptoms, heart rate variability and cognitive performance. Participants were divided into three groups of equal size based on their self-rated sound intolerance, which resulted in low, medium, and high sound intolerance groups. Results revealed large variations across individuals in several outcome variables. Compared to the other two groups, the high sound intolerance group perceived the noise as more unpleasant, stronger, and more distracting. They further rated the symptoms as higher in intensity, showed deviations in heart rate variability, and performed poorer on a cognitive task selected to measure inhibition.

In conclusion, the results suggest that persons with sound intolerance have relatively poor general health and hearing as well as high odds of comorbidity with various symptoms, including psychiatric diagnoses and functional somatic syndromes. In a working population, the sound intolerant show high odds for worrying about things at work, perceiving low social support at work and not feeling rewarded at work. Finally, the results suggest that persons with high sound intolerance have increased distractibility, sound unpleasantness, symptoms over time as well as lowered heart rate variability and cognitive performance when exposed to sounds.

Abstract [sv]

Ljudintolerans syftar på en negativ reaktion på ljud vid ljudtrycksnivåer som de flesta människor inte finner obehagligt. Vilka processer som ligger bakom de förhöjda reaktionerna eller relationerna till andra åkommor är ännu oklart. Syftet med den här avhandlingen är att bredda kunskapen om ljudintolerans och dess underkategori hyperakusi, genom bruket av tvärsektionella och kvasi-experimentella metoder.           Avhandlingen består av tre studier som angriper ämnet från olika perspektiv, med syfte att bättre förstå generella egenskaper hos ljudintolerans; relationen till psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer; samt effekterna av en ljudexponering i kontrollerad laboratoriemiljö. Studie I bestod av tvärsnittsdata från Miljöhälsostudien i Västerbotten och avhandlade egenskaper, bakgrundsdata och komorbiditeter för självrapporterade och läkardiagnostiserade individer med hyperakusi, jämfört med en referensgrupp utan dessa besvär. Resultaten visade att en majoritet av båda hyperakusi-grupperna försökte undvika ljudkällor, och upplevde att de för det mesta kunde påverka miljön för att göra den mindre bullrig. Det var en signifikant ökad risk för flera samsjukligheter för den självrapporterade gruppen jämfört med referenterna, med stora oddskvoter för såväl psykiatriska, muskuloskeletala och otorinolaryngologiska diagnoser, som funktionella somatiska syndrom. Studie II var även den en tvärsnittsstudie, den här gången med data från Miljöhälsostudien i Österbotten. Fokus för denna studie var kopplingen mellan ljudintolerans och psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer. Personer med hyperakusi som arbetade, var tjänstlediga, föräldralediga eller långtidssjukskrivna, jämfördes med motsvarande grupp utan hyperakusi. Resultaten visade signifikant högre risk att skatta högt på enkätinstrument som mätte oro, brist på socialt stöd och brist på belöning. Ingen signifikant skillnad fanns för variablerna lågt känslomässigt stöd, överengagemang på arbetsplatsen och ansträngning. Den tredje och sista studien var en kvasi-experimentell laboratoriestudie. Syftet var att studera hur personer med ljudintolerans reagerade på ljudstimuli över en längre tidsperiod, med avseende på upplevd intensitet, obehag, distraktionsgrad, symptom, hjärtslagsvariabilitet och kognitiv prestation. Deltagarna delades upp i tre grupper baserat på deras egenskattade ljudintolerans. Resultaten visade på signifikanta skillnader; gruppen med hög ljudintolerans upplevde ljudet som mer obehagligt, distraherande och starkare. De rapporterade även kraftigare symptom, lägre hjärtslagsvariabilitet och sämre prestation på inhibitionsuppgiften jämfört med grupperna med låg och medelhög ljudintolerans. Sammantaget föreslår resultaten från studierna i den här avhandlingen att personer med ljudintolerans använder undvikande beteende, har generell sämre hälsa och större samsjuklighet än normalt. Yrkesarbetande med ljudintolerans löper större risk för att oroa sig för saker på jobbet, upplever lägre socialt stöd och känner sig inte så belönade på arbetsplatsen. Slutligen föreslår resultaten att personer med hög ljudintolerans upplever hög distraktion, obehag, och symptom över tid samt sänkt hjärtslagsvariabilitet och presterar relativt dåligt på kognitiva uppgifter vid exponering för ljud.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 61
Keywords
Sound intolerance, hyperacusis, psychosocial work environment, Noise sensitivity scale, white noise, Ljudintolerans, hyperakusi, psykosocial arbetsmiljö, vitt brus, ljudöverkänslighet
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166112 (URN)978-91-7855-160-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-17, Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Aazh, H., Knipper, M., Danesh, A. A., Cavanna, A. E., Andersson, L., Paulin, J., . . . Moore, B. C. J. (2018). Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Noise & Health, 20(95), 162-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment
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2018 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis. Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis. Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2018
Keywords
Audiology, auditory system, hyperacusis, misophonia, noise sensitivity
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151568 (URN)10.4103/nah.NAH_2_18 (DOI)000442780700005 ()30136676 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Aasa, U., Paulin, J. & Madison, G. (2017). Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(2), 451-461
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women
2017 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

Keywords
balance, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, physical activity
National Category
Psychology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129494 (URN)000393766100026 ()27893472 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-31 Created: 2016-12-31 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Paulin, J., Andersson, L. & Nordin, S. (2016). Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population. Noise & Health, 18(83), 178-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population
2016 (English)In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, no 83, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Medknow Publications, 2016
Keywords
Functional somatic syndrome, hyperacusis, noise sensitivity, prevalence, psychiatric disorder, sound intolerance
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126759 (URN)10.4103/1463-1741.189244 (DOI)000383904300002 ()27569405 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Ramji, R., Aasa, U., Paulin, J. & Madison, G. (2016). Musical information increases physical performance for synchronous but not asynchronous running. Psychology of Music, 44(5), 984-995
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Musical information increases physical performance for synchronous but not asynchronous running
2016 (English)In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 984-995Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given that physical performance is enhanced by listening to music, what information in the music is the active ingredient? Here, we varied the amount of music information in an otherwise identical piece of music, from only the rhythm, through a synthesized and scaled down version, to the full original version. Twenty-two university students (11 males and 11 females) ran for 10 minutes to each of eight conditions, two with white noise, three with music that facilitated synchronization with the running pace, and three with tempi where synchronization was impossible. Dependent variables were distance run and the number of steps, from which stride length was computed. Heart rate and mood (PANAS) were also measured for control purposes. Participants tended to run a greater distance when there was more music information, which was mainly an effect of longer strides rather than a faster stride rate. This effect was stronger in the synchronous conditions. The results suggest that the motivational effects of music information during running is mostly related to richer temporal information conveyed by faster metrical levels, when attempting to synchronize with the beat in the music

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112753 (URN)10.1177/0305735615603239 (DOI)000382740900005 ()
Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Madison, G., Paulin, J. & Aasa, U. (2013). Physical and psychological effects from supervised aerobic music exercise. American Journal of Health Behavior, 37(6), 780-793
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical and psychological effects from supervised aerobic music exercise
2013 (English)In: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 780-793Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the physical and psychological effects across 11 weeks of music-exercise sessions, the participants' training experience, and attitudes towards physical activity. The effect of different music information was also investigated.

METHODS: Overall, 146 sedentary volunteers were randomized into 4 exercise groups and each group received different music information. Physical capacity and psychological measures were obtained.

RESULTS: Increased performance in oxygen uptake and flexibility and decreased blood pressure was found. Participants reported increased wellbeing and body-awareness, and an intention to remain physically active. No differences between groups were found.

CONCLUSION: Music-exercise can be recommended to promote physical activity among sedentary individuals. The amount of musical information in synchronous music seems not to have any effects on self-selected intensity or physiological benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
P N G Publications, 2013
Keywords
exercise intensity, health, life style, physical activity prescription, physical capacity
National Category
Physiotherapy Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92041 (URN)10.5993/AJHB.37.6.7 (DOI)000324537700007 ()24001627 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Madison, G., Aasa, U. & Paulin, J. (2011). Musikens positiva kraft. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 20(1), 46-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Musikens positiva kraft
2011 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
musik, träning, idrott
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46740 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Madison, G. & Paulin, J. (2010). Ratings of speed in real music as a function of both original and manipulated tempo. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(5), 3032-3040
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ratings of speed in real music as a function of both original and manipulated tempo
2010 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 3032-3040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an apparent contradiction between the narrow range of tempi optimal for perceptualjudgment and motor synchronization and the wide range of beat tempi found in real music. Therelation between listeners’ perception of speed and beat tempo was therefore investigated, both forreal music excerpts (ME) and metronome sequences. Tempi ranged from 42 to 200 beats per minute (BPM), and some excerpts were further tempo manipulated in four levels from from ±5 to ±20%. Regression analyses showed that speed was a shallower function of original tempo for fast (> 150 BPM) and slow (< 95 BPM) MEs than for MEs with intermediate tempi, describing anon-linear, sigmoid function. Manipulated tempo had twice as large an effect on speed as hadoriginal tempo. In contrast, speed was an almost linear function of tempo for metronome sequences.Taken together, these results show that the non-linearity stems from properties of the musical signal,rather than being a subjective perceptual effect. They indicate an inverse relation between tempo andrelative event density in real music, and demonstrate that the perception of periodic signals isaffected not only by the beat level, but also by faster and slower levels.© 2010 Acoustical Society of America.

National Category
Psychology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Neurosciences Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-38836 (URN)10.1121/1.3493462 (DOI)000284617900072 ()
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Paulin, J., Nordin, S., Nilsson, O., Logan, S. & Andersson, L.Reactions to white noise exposure in sound intolerance: Perception, symptoms, cognition and autonomic responses..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactions to white noise exposure in sound intolerance: Perception, symptoms, cognition and autonomic responses.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166118 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-12
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1464-693x

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