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Espling, Daniel
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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Espling, D., Larsson, L., Li, W., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2016). Modeling and Placement of Cloud Services with Internal Structure. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, 4(4), 429-439
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Placement of Cloud Services with Internal Structure
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2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, ISSN 2168-7161, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Virtual machine placement is the process of mapping virtual machines to available physical hosts within a datacenter or on a remote datacenter in a cloud federation. Normally, service owners cannot influence the placement of service components beyond choosing datacenter provider and deployment zone at that provider. For some services, however, this lack of influence is a hindrance to cloud adoption. For example, services that require specific geographical deployment (due e.g. to legislation), or require redundancy by avoiding co-location placement of critical components. We present an approach for service owners to influence placement of their service components by explicitly specifying service structure, component relationships, and placement constraints between components. We show how the structure and constraints can be expressed and subsequently formulated as constraints that can be used in placement of virtual machines in the cloud. We use an integer linear programming scheduling approach to illustrate the approach, show the corresponding mathematical formulation of the model, and evaluate it using a large set of simulated input. Our experimental evaluation confirms the feasibility of the model and shows how varying amounts of placement constraints and data center background load affects the possibility for a solver to find a solution satisfying all constraints within a certain time-frame. Our experiments indicate that the number of constraints affects the ability of finding a solution to a higher degree than background load, and that for a high number of hosts with low capacity, component affinity is the dominating factor affecting the possibility to find a solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Keywords
service management, service structure, placement, affinity, collocation, scheduling, integer linear programming, cloud computing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80125 (URN)10.1109/TCC.2014.2362120 (DOI)000390560200005 ()
Funder
eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Armstrong, D., Espling, D., Tordsson, J., Djemame, K. & Elmroth, E. (2015). Contextualization: dynamic configuration of virtual machines. Journal of Cloud Computing - Advances, Systems and Applications, 4(17)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualization: dynamic configuration of virtual machines
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cloud Computing - Advances, Systems and Applications, ISSN 2192-113X, Vol. 4, no 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New VM instances are created from static templates that contain the basic configuration of the VM to achieve elasticity with regards to capacity. Instance specific settings can be injected into the VM during the deployment phase through means of contextualization. So far this is limited to a single data source and data remains static throughout the lifecycle of the VM.

We present a layered approach to contextualization that supports different classes of contextualization data available from several sources. The settings are made available to the VM through virtual devices. Inside each VM data from different classes are layered on top of each other to create a unified file hierarchy.

Context data can be modified during runtime by updating the contents of the virtual devices, making our approach the first contextualization approach to natively support recontextualization. Recontextualization enables runtime reconfiguration of an executing service and can act as a trigger and key enabler of self-* techniques. This trigger provides a service with a mechanism to adapt or optimize itself in response to a changing environment. The runtime reconfiguration using recontextualization and its potential gains are illustrated in an example with a distributed file system, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
Cloud Computing, Contextualization, Recontextualization, Configuration, Virtual machine
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112462 (URN)10.1186/s13677-015-0042-8 (DOI)000215564300017 ()
Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Espling, D., Östberg, P.-O. & Elmroth, E. (2014). Integration and evaluation of decentralized fairshare prioritization (Aequus). In: Proceedings of the IEEE 28th International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops IPDPSW 2014: . Paper presented at 28th IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, May 19-23, 2014, Arizona Grand Resort, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (pp. 1198-1207). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration and evaluation of decentralized fairshare prioritization (Aequus)
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE 28th International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops IPDPSW 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 1198-1207Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fairshare is commonly one of the factors used by cluster resource management systems to prioritize jobs during scheduling. Despite the grid vision of a transparent and unified infrastructure, fairshare is normally calculated and enforced at the local cluster level rather than at a grid-wide scale. Aequus is a self-contained decentralized system for grid-wide fairshare job prioritization. Using Aequus, detailed global share policies can be combined with local cluster policies to offer a unified grid fairshare prioritization system where local administrations retain control over their clusters. This work shows how Aequus can be integrated with local resource management systems such as SLURM and Maui with minimal intrusion. Early results from production help assess the maturity of the system, and the system is further tested and evaluated for use at a nation-wide scale using workload modeling techniques. Statistical models are created based on historical national grid usage data, and synthetic traces based on these models are used to create a diverse input set used to exemplify system behavior. The system is shown to behave consistently despite great variations in job arrival patterns and partial participation of some of the collaborating installations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keywords
Grid scheduling, Fairshare scheduling, Work-load modeling
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
business data processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135839 (URN)10.1109/IPDPSW.2014.135 (DOI)000399141700136 ()978-1-4799-4116-2 (ISBN)
Conference
28th IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, May 19-23, 2014, Arizona Grand Resort, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Katsaros, G., Subirats, J., Fito, J. O., Guitart, J., Gilet, P. & Espling, D. (2013). A service framework for energy-aware monitoring and VM management in Clouds. Future generations computer systems, 29(8), 2077-2091
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A service framework for energy-aware monitoring and VM management in Clouds
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2013 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 2077-2091Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The monitoring of QoS parameters in Services Computing as well as in Clouds has been a functionality provided by all contemporary systems. As the optimization of energy consumption becomes a major concern for system designers and administrators, it can be considered as another QoS metric to be monitored. In this paper, we present a service framework that allows us to monitor the energy consumption of a Cloud infrastructure, calculate its energy efficiency, and evaluate the gathered data in order to put in place an effective virtual machine (VM) management. In that context, a simulation scenario of an eco-driven VM placement policy resulted in a 14% improvement of the infrastructure's energy efficiency. In total, the proposed approaches and implementations have been validated against a testbed, producing very promising results regarding the prospect of energy efficiency as an important quality factor in Clouds. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Monitoring, Cloud, Energy efficiency, Energy consumption
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84131 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2012.12.006 (DOI)000326613400018 ()
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Östberg, P.-O., Espling, D. & Elmroth, E. (2013). Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling. Future generations computer systems, 29(1), 130-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling
2013 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 130-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work addresses Grid fairshare allocation policy enforcement and presents Aequus, a decentralized system for Grid-wide fairshare job prioritization. The main idea of fairshare scheduling is to prioritize users with regard to predefined resource allocation quotas. The presented system builds on three contributions: a flexible tree-based policy model that allows delegation of policy definition, a job prioritization algorithm based on local enforcement of distributed fairshare policies, and a decentralized architecture for non-intrusive integration with existing scheduling systems. The system supports organization of users in virtual organizations and divides usage policies into local and global policy components that are defined by resource owners and virtual organizations. The architecture realization is presented in detail along with an evaluation of the system behavior in an emulated environment. In the evaluation, convergence noise types (mechanisms counteracting policy allocation convergence) are characterized and quantified, and the system is demonstrated to meet scheduling objectives and perform scalably under realistic operating conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Grid scheduling, Fairshare scheduling, Grid allocation policy enforcement
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40492 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2012.06.001 (DOI)000311771700010 ()
Available from: 2011-02-24 Created: 2011-02-24 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Espling, D. (2013). Enabling Technologies for Management of Distributed Computing Infrastructures. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Technologies for Management of Distributed Computing Infrastructures
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computing infrastructures offer remote access to computing power that can be employed, e.g., to solve complex mathematical problems or to host computational services that need to be online and accessible at all times. From the perspective of the infrastructure provider, large amounts of distributed and often heterogeneous computer resources need to be united into a coherent platform that is then made accessible to and usable by potential users. Grid computing and cloud computing are two paradigms that can be used to form such unified computational infrastructures.

Resources from several independent infrastructure providers can be joined to form large-scale decentralized infrastructures. The primary advantage of doing this is that it increases the scale of the available resources, making it possible to address more complex problems or to run a greater number of services on the infrastructures. In addition, there are advantages in terms of factors such as fault-tolerance and geographical dispersion. Such multi-domain infrastructures require sophisticated management processes to mitigate the complications of executing computations and services across resources from different administrative domains.

This thesis contributes to the development of management processes for distributed infrastructures that are designed to support multi-domain environments. It describes investigations into how fundamental management processes such as scheduling and accounting are affected by the barriers imposed by multi-domain deployments, which include technical heterogeneity, decentralized and (domain-wise) self-centric decision making, and a lack of information on the state and availability of remote resources.

Four enabling technologies or approaches are explored and developed within this work: (I) The use of explicit definitions of cloud service structure as inputs for placement and management processes to ensure that the resulting placements respect the internal relationships between different service components and any relevant constraints. (II) Technology for the runtime adaptation of Virtual Machines to enable the automatic adaptation of cloud service contexts in response to changes in their environment caused by, e.g., service migration across domains. (III) Systems for managing meta-data relating to resource usage in multi-domain grid computing and cloud computing infrastructures. (IV) A global fairshare prioritization mechanism that enables computational jobs to be consistently prioritized across a federation of several decentralized grid installations.

Each of these technologies will facilitate the emergence of decentralized computational infrastructures capable of utilizing resources from diverse infrastructure providers in an automatic and seamless manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2013. p. 64
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 13.19
Keywords
grid computing, cloud computing, accounting, billing, contextualization, monitoring, structure, fairshare, scheduling, federated
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80129 (URN)978-91-7459-704-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-17, KBC-huset, Stora hörsalen KBC, KB3B1, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 215605EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115Swedish Research Council, 621-2005-3667eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Note

Note that the author changed surname from Henriksson to Espling in 2011

Available from: 2013-09-23 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Armstrong, D., Espling, D., Tordsson, J., Djemame, K. & Elmroth, E. (2013). Runtime virtual machine recontextualization for clouds. In: Ioannis Caragiannis et al. (Ed.), Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops. Paper presented at BDMC, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, OMHI, Paraphrase, PROPER, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Rhodes Island, Greece, August 27-31, 2012 (pp. 567-576). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 7640
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Runtime virtual machine recontextualization for clouds
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2013 (English)In: Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops / [ed] Ioannis Caragiannis et al., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 7640, p. 567-576Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We introduce and define the concept of recontextualization for cloud applications by extending contextualization, i.e. the dynamic configuration of virtual machines (VM) upon initialization, with autonomous updates during runtime. Recontextualization allows VM images and instances to be dynamically re-configured without restarts or downtime, and the concept is applicable to all aspects of configuring a VM from virtual hardware to multi-tier software stacks. Moreover, we propose a runtime cloud recontextualization mechanism based on virtual device management that enables recontextualization without the need to customize the guest VM. We illustrate our concept and validate our mechanism via a use case demonstration: the reconfiguration of a cross-cloud migratable monitoring service in a dynamic cloud environment. We discuss the details of the interoperable recontextualization mechanism, its architecture and demonstrate a proof of concept implementation. A performance evaluation illustrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the recontextualization mechanism performs adequately with an overhead of 18% of the total migration time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-36949-0_66 (DOI)000341240400066 ()978-3-642-36948-3 (ISBN)978-3-642-36949-0 (ISBN)
Conference
BDMC, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, OMHI, Paraphrase, PROPER, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Rhodes Island, Greece, August 27-31, 2012
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Espling, D. (2011). Metadata Management in Multi-Grids and Multi-Clouds. (Licentiate dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University, Department of Computing Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metadata Management in Multi-Grids and Multi-Clouds
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grid computing and cloud computing are two related paradigms used to access and use vast amounts of computational resources. The resources are often owned and managed by a third party, relieving the users from the costs and burdens of acquiring and managing a considerably large infrastructure themselves. Commonly, the resources are either contributed by different stakeholders participating in shared projects (grids), or owned and managed by a single entity and made available to its users with charging based on actual resource consumption (clouds). Individual grid or cloud sites can form collaborations with other sites, giving each site access to more resources that can be used to execute tasks submitted by users. There are several different models of collaborations between sites, each suitable for different scenarios and each posing additional requirements on the underlying technologies.

Metadata concerning the status and resource consumption of tasks are created during the execution of the task on the infrastructure. This metadata is used as the primary input in many core management processes, e.g., as a base for accounting and billing, as input when prioritizing and placing incoming task, and as a base for managing the amount of resources allocated to different tasks.

Focusing on management and utilization of metadata, this thesis contributes to a better understanding of the requirements and challenges imposed by different collaboration models in both grids and clouds. The underlying design criteria and resulting architectures of several software systems are presented in detail. Each system addresses different challenges imposed by cross-site grid and cloud architectures:

  • The LUTSfed approach provides a lean and optional mechanism for filtering and management of usage data between grid or cloud sites.

  • An accounting and billing system natively designed to support cross-site clouds demonstrates usage data management despite unknown placement and dynamic task resource allocation.

  • The FSGrid system enables fairshare job prioritization across different grid sites, mitigating the problems of heterogeneous scheduling software and local management policies.

The results and experiences from these systems are both theoretical and practical, as full scale implementations of each system has been developed and analyzed as a part of this work. Early theoretical work on structure-based service management forms a foundation for future work on structured-aware service placement in cross- site clouds. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, Department of Computing Science, 2011. p. 120
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 11.08
Keywords
grid computing, cloud computing, accounting, billing, metadata, monitoring, structure, fairshare, scheduling, federated
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51159 (URN)978-91-7459-281-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-10-06, Naturvetarhuset, N320, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-25 Created: 2012-01-11 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Larsson, L., Henriksson, D. & Elmroth, E. (2011). Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations. In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC): . Paper presented at 16th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (lSCC)and First International Workshop on Management of Cloud Systems (MoCS 2011), Corfu, Greece, June 28-July 1, 2011 (pp. 173-178). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), IEEE, 2011, p. 173-178Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud infrastructure providers may form Cloud federations to cope with peaks in resource demand and to make large-scale service management simpler for service providers. To realize Cloud federations, a number of technical and managerial difficulties need to be solved. We present ongoing work addressing three related key management topics, namely, specification, scheduling, and monitoring of services. Service providers need to be able to influence how their resources are placed in Cloud federations, as federations may cross national borders or include companies in direct competition with the service provider. Based on related work in the RESERVOIR project, we propose a way to define service structure and placement restrictions using hierarchical directed acyclic graphs. We define a model for scheduling in Cloud federations that abides by the specified placement constraints and minimizes the risk of violating Service-Level Agreements. We present a heuristic that helps the model determine which virtual machines (VMs) are suitable candidates for migration. To aid the scheduler, and to provide unified data to service providers, we also propose a monitoring data distribution architecture that introduces cross-site compatibility by means of semantic metadata annotations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE Symposium on Computers & Communications (ISCC), ISSN 1530-1346
Keywords
cloud computing, scheduling, monitoring, service structure
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
business data processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40268 (URN)10.1109/ISCC.2011.5984012 (DOI)000298614900034 ()978-1-4577-0678-3 (ISBN)978-1-4577-0680-6 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (lSCC)and First International Workshop on Management of Cloud Systems (MoCS 2011), Corfu, Greece, June 28-July 1, 2011
Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lindner, M., Marquez, F. G., Chapman, C., Clayman, S., Henriksson, D. & Elmroth, E. (2011). The Cloud Supply Chain: A Framework for Information, Monitoring, Accounting and Billing. In: 2nd International ICST Conference on Cloud Computing (CloudComp 2010). Paper presented at CloudComp 2010, 2nd International ICST Conference on Cloud Computing, Oct 25, 2010 - Oct 28, 2010 Barcelona, Spanien..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cloud Supply Chain: A Framework for Information, Monitoring, Accounting and Billing
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2011 (English)In: 2nd International ICST Conference on Cloud Computing (CloudComp 2010), 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40371 (URN)
Conference
CloudComp 2010, 2nd International ICST Conference on Cloud Computing, Oct 25, 2010 - Oct 28, 2010 Barcelona, Spanien.
Available from: 2011-02-22 Created: 2011-02-22 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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