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Kazukauskas, Andrius
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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Broberg, T., Egüez, A. & Kazukauskas, A. (2019). Effects of energy performance certificates on investment: A quasi-natural experiment approach. Energy Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of energy performance certificates on investment: A quasi-natural experiment approach
2019 (English)In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Incomplete information may be one reason why some households do not invest in energy efficiency even though it would benefit them to do so. Energy performance certificates (EPCs) have been promoted to overcome such information shortages. In this paper, we investigate whether EPCs together with mandatory home energy audits make households more likely to invest in energy efficiency. Our study takes advantage of the mandatory nature of the EPCs to avoid the potential selection bias problem that typically applies to studies using voluntary energy audits as the treatment. Our treatment group consists of single-household houses in Sweden sold from 2008, i.e., when EPCs became legally required in connection with sales of residential buildings, to 2015; while the control group consists of houses sold between 2002 and 2008, i.e., without an EPC. The results show that there is no statistically significant treatment effect for most of the measures that a household can take to improve the energy performance of their house. The significant treatment effect that we do find concerns a few heating system-related measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
energy performance certificate, energy audits, quasi-natural experiment, incomplete information, investment decision, energy efficiency gap, policy evaluation
National Category
Economics Energy Systems
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162070 (URN)10.1016/j.eneco.2019.104480 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-07 Created: 2019-09-07 Last updated: 2019-10-10
Jaraite, J., Karimu, A. & Kazukauskas, A. (2017). Policy-induced expansion of solar and wind power capacity: economic growth and employment in EU countries. Energy Journal, 38(5), 197-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy-induced expansion of solar and wind power capacity: economic growth and employment in EU countries
2017 (English)In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 197-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given the intensifying debates on whether governments should promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-and short-run effects of policy-induced expansion of renewable solar and wind technologies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states during 1990-2013 by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. Instead of relying on renewable energy consumption or generation as commonly done in the literature, we focus on the capacity for solar and wind power generation, which is largely a consequence of the EU's renewable energy policies. In summary, we find that, to date, renewable energy policy-induced wind and solar power capacity promotes growth and/or employment in the short run, but these capacity increases do not stimulate economic growth in the long run in the EU-15 region. In fact, our results tend to support the opposite relationship: increases in wind and solar power capacity are associated with negative economic growth, at least at the total economy level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Energy Economics, 2017
Keywords
Economic growth, Employment, European Union, Granger causality, Panel cointegration, Policy, Renewable energy capacity, Solar energy, Wind energy
National Category
Economics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131723 (URN)10.5547/01956574.38.5.jjar (DOI)000408059400010 ()
Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Kazukauskas, A., Broberg, T. & Jaraite, J. (2017). The peer comparison in real time: a field experiment of water and electricity consumption.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The peer comparison in real time: a field experiment of water and electricity consumption
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A large body of literature shows that the provision of social comparisons can cause households to reduce residential energy and water use. In this paper, we carry out a field experiment that contributes to this literature in two important ways. First, we study a social comparison treatment that is continuous and communicated via pre-installed in-home displays, which are salient and updated in real time. Second, we estimate the effects of provision of social comparisons on two distinguished resources – electricity and water – in the same experimental setting. We find that, on average, our social comparison reduces daily residential energy consumption by 6.7 percent but has no effect on overall residential water use. The electricity savings are impersistent and occur in the evening hours, which only slightly overlap with peak hours. We argue that electricity conservation due to social comparisons is driven by short-run changes in households’ electricity saving behavior

Publisher
p. 40
Series
CERE Working Paper ; 2017:8
Keywords
Consumer economics, Electricity, Field experiment, Real-time displays, Comparison information, Water
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152791 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Broberg, T., Brännlund, R., Kazukauskas, A., Persson, L. & Vesterberg, M. (2015). An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity. Eskilstuna: Energimarknadsinspektionen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity
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2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Energimarknadsinspektionen, 2015. p. 34
Series
Energimarknadsinspektionen
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105994 (URN)
Available from: 2015-07-03 Created: 2015-07-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jaraite-Kazukauske, J. & Kazukauskas, A. (2015). Do transaction costs influence firm trading behaviourin the European emissions trading system?. Environmental and Resource Economics, 62(3), 583-613
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do transaction costs influence firm trading behaviourin the European emissions trading system?
2015 (English)In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 583-613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is one of the first to empirically investigate firm trading behaviour and the importance of permit trading transaction costs, such as information costs and search costs, in the first phase of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The signs and significance of our constructed transaction costs proxy variables indicate for a presence of these costs in the initial years of the EU ETS. In particular, this paper shows that ETS firms with the smaller number of installations and with less trading experience were less likely to participate in the European emissions trading market and traded the lower quantities of permits. Furthermore, these firms chose to trade permits indirectly via third parties. This study also supports the concerns that transaction costs could be excessive for smaller participants and firms operating in the new EU member states.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2015
Keywords
Climate policy, Emissions trading, EU ETS, European Union, Firm-level data, Trading behaviour, Transaction costs
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94625 (URN)10.1007/s10640-014-9831-7 (DOI)000364221800009 ()
Note

Published online 9 October 2014.

Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Broberg, T. & Kazukauskas, A. (2015). Inefficiencies in Residential Use of Energy: A Critical Overview of Literature and Energy Efficiency Policies in the EU. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 8(2), 225-279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inefficiencies in Residential Use of Energy: A Critical Overview of Literature and Energy Efficiency Policies in the EU
2015 (English)In: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, E-ISSN 1932-1473, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 225-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rather large literature argues that firms and households do not always improve energy efficiency by investing in new technology even if it would be cost-effective to do so. In this paper, we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the so-called energy efficiency gap and provide a rationale for policymakers to act to improve energy efficiency. By eliminating market failures, welfare can be improved in a broad sense, including both environmental quality and material welfare. We also discuss social 'nudges' as examples of policy instruments that do not directly target any market failure in energy markets but that still may have a significant impact on energy use. Although we acknowledge the existence of the energy efficiency gap, we argue that the gap in general is overestimated as parts of it can be explained by heterogeneity in preferences and thus explained by rational choices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Now Publishers Inc., 2015
Keywords
Energy efficiency gap, Market failures, Behavioural failures, EU policies
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107735 (URN)10.1561/101.00000070 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jaraite, J., Karimu, A., Andrius, K. & Kazukauskas, P. (2015). Renewable energy policy, economic growth and employment in EU countries: gain without pain?. Umeå
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Renewable energy policy, economic growth and employment in EU countries: gain without pain?
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the intensifying debates whether governments should use industrial policies to promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-run effects of renewable energy support policies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states for the 1990-2012 time period by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. The first hypothesis is that the EU’s renewable energy support policies lead to technological advancement, followed by economy growth, in the long-run. The second hypothesis states that these policies at least generate an increase in output and employment in the short-run. In summary, our results provide some evidence in support of the second hypothesis, but, in contrary to the similar studies, our findings do not support the first hypothesis that these policies promote growth in the long-run.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2015. p. 30
Series
CERE Working Paper Serries ; 2015:7
Keywords
economic growth, EU, Granger causality, panel cointegration, policy, renewable energy
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-104611 (URN)
Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Broberg, T., Brännlund, R., Kazukauskas, A., Persson, L. & Vesterberg, M. (2014). En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?. Eskilstuna: Energimarknadsinspektionen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?
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2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Energimarknadsinspektionen, 2014. p. 39
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93352 (URN)
Projects
elmarknad, konsument
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-09-17 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Jaraite, J., Kazukauskas, A. & Lundgren, T. (2014). The effects of climate policy on environmental expenditure and investments: evidence from Sweden. Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, 3(2), 148-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of climate policy on environmental expenditure and investments: evidence from Sweden
2014 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 148-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study provides new evidence on the determinants of environmental expenditure and investment. In particular, it investigates how environmental expenditure and investment of Swedish industrial firms responded to climate policies, such as the European Union's Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and the Swedish CO2 tax, directed to mitigate air pollution. Overall, an important conclusion of this analysis is that climate policies, both on the national and international levels, were highly relevant motivations for firm environmental expenditure. However, the findings do not support the expectations that the EU ETS and the Swedish CO2 tax encouraged investment in air pollution abatement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
climate policy, CO2 tax, environmental expenditure and investment, EU ETS, firm-level data, Sweden
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88440 (URN)10.1080/21606544.2013.875948 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-05-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Kazukauskas, A., Newman, C. & Sauer, J. (2014). The impact of decoupled subsidies on productivity in agriculture: a cross-country analysis using microdata. Agricultural Economics, 45(3), 327-336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of decoupled subsidies on productivity in agriculture: a cross-country analysis using microdata
2014 (English)In: Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0169-5150, E-ISSN 1574-0862, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decoupling of direct payments from production introduced in the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is expected to make production decisions more market-oriented and farmers more productive. However, ex-post analyses of the productivity of farms have yet to uncover any evidence of a positive impact of the decoupling policy on farm productivity. Using Irish, Danish, and Dutch farm-level data, we identify whether the decoupling policy has contributed to productivity growth in agriculture and farm product adjustment behavior. We find some evidence that the decoupling policy had significant positive effects on farm productivity and behavioral changes related to farm specialization.

Keywords
Productivity, Subsidy decoupling, Semiparametric estimation, Switching, Specialization
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82476 (URN)10.1111/agec.12068 (DOI)000334270800006 ()
Available from: 2013-11-02 Created: 2013-11-02 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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