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Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Maes, S., Dietrich, J., Midolo, G., Schwieger, S., Kummu, M., Vandvik, V., . . . Dorrepaal, E. (2024). Environmental drivers of increased ecosystem respiration in a warming tundra. Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental drivers of increased ecosystem respiration in a warming tundra
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2024 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystems are large reservoirs of organic carbon1,2. Climate warming may stimulate ecosystem respiration and release carbon into the atmosphere3,4. The magnitude and persistency of this stimulation and the environmental mechanisms that drive its variation remain uncertain5–7. This hampers the accuracy of global land carbon–climate feedback projections7,8. Here we synthesize 136 datasets from 56 open-top chamber in situ warming experiments located at 28 arctic and alpine tundra sites which have been running for less than 1 year up to 25 years. We show that a mean rise of 1.4 °C [confidence interval (CI) 0.9–2.0 °C] in air and 0.4 °C [CI 0.2–0.7 °C] in soil temperature results in an increase in growing season ecosystem respiration by 30% [CI 22–38%] (n = 136). Our findings indicate that the stimulation of ecosystem respiration was due to increases in both plant-related and microbial respiration (n = 9) and continued for at least 25 years (n = 136). The magnitude of the warming effects on respiration was driven by variation in warming-induced changes in local soil conditions, that is, changes in total nitrogen concentration and pH and by context-dependent spatial variation in these conditions, in particular total nitrogen concentration and the carbon:nitrogen ratio. Tundra sites with stronger nitrogen limitations and sites in which warming had stimulated plant and microbial nutrient turnover seemed particularly sensitive in their respiration response to warming. The results highlight the importance of local soil conditions and warming-induced changes therein for future climatic impacts on respiration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223836 (URN)10.1038/s41586-024-07274-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85190691054 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-04004Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2020.0126Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-655Swedish Research Council Formas, 2021-02449EU, European Research CouncilEU, Horizon 2020Academy of FinlandThe Research Council of Norway
Available from: 2024-04-30 Created: 2024-04-30 Last updated: 2024-04-30
Stroud, J., Delory, B., Barnes, E., Chase, J., De Meester, L., Dieskau, J., . . . Fukami, T. (2024). Priority effects transcend scales and disciplines in biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Priority effects transcend scales and disciplines in biology
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2024 (English)In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383Article, review/survey (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Although primarily studied through the lens of community ecology, phenomena consistent with priority effects appear to be widespread across many different scenarios spanning a broad range of spatial, temporal, and biological scales. However, communication between these research fields is inconsistent and has resulted in a fragmented co-citation landscape, likely due to the diversity of terms used to refer to priority effects across these fields. We review these related terms, and the biological contexts in which they are used, to facilitate greater cross-disciplinary cohesion in research on priority effects. In breaking down these semantic barriers, we aim to provide a framework to better understand the conditions and mechanisms of priority effects, and their consequences across spatial and temporal scales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
alternative stable states, biotic interactions, community assembly, historical contingency, priority effects, stochasticity
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223263 (URN)10.1016/j.tree.2024.02.004 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189473807 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-05099German Research Foundation (DFG), FZT 118German Research Foundation (DFG), 202548816German Research Foundation (DFG), 470604360
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-18
Sarneel, J. M., Hefting, M. M., Sandén, T., van den Hoogen, J., Routh, D., Adhikari, B. S., . . . Keuskamp, J. A. (2024). Reading tea leaves worldwide: decoupled drivers of initial litter decomposition mass-loss rate and stabilization [Letter to the editor]. Ecology Letters, 27(5), Article ID e14415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading tea leaves worldwide: decoupled drivers of initial litter decomposition mass-loss rate and stabilization
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2024 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 27, no 5, article id e14415Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The breakdown of plant material fuels soil functioning and biodiversity. Currently, process understanding of global decomposition patterns and the drivers of such patterns are hampered by the lack of coherent large-scale datasets. We buried 36,000 individual litterbags (tea bags) worldwide and found an overall negative correlation between initial mass-loss rates and stabilization factors of plant-derived carbon, using the Tea Bag Index (TBI). The stabilization factor quantifies the degree to which easy-to-degrade components accumulate during early-stage decomposition (e.g. by environmental limitations). However, agriculture and an interaction between moisture and temperature led to a decoupling between initial mass-loss rates and stabilization, notably in colder locations. Using TBI improved mass-loss estimates of natural litter compared to models that ignored stabilization. Ignoring the transformation of dead plant material to more recalcitrant substances during early-stage decomposition, and the environmental control of this transformation, could overestimate carbon losses during early decomposition in carbon cycle models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
citizen science, environmental drivers, global change, litter decomposition, mass loss, soil organic matter formation, stabilization, tea bag index
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-225280 (URN)10.1111/ele.14415 (DOI)38712683 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85192596231 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-06-10 Created: 2024-06-10 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved
Sofo, A., Khanghahi, M. Y., Curci, M., Reyes, F., Briones, M. J. I., Sarneel, J. M., . . . Crecchio, C. (2023). Earthworm-driven changes in soil chemico-physical properties, soil bacterial microbiota, tree/tea litter decomposition, and plant growth in a mesocosm experiment with two plant species. PLANTS, 12(6), Article ID 1216.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Earthworm-driven changes in soil chemico-physical properties, soil bacterial microbiota, tree/tea litter decomposition, and plant growth in a mesocosm experiment with two plant species
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2023 (English)In: PLANTS, E-ISSN 2223-7747, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 1216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Earthworms and soil microorganisms contribute to soil health, quality, and fertility, but their importance in agricultural soils is often underestimated. This study aims at examining whether and to what extent the presence of earthworms (Eisenia sp.) affected the (a) soil bacterial community composition, (b) litter decomposition, and (c) plant growth (Brassica oleracea L., broccoli; Vicia faba L., faba bean). We performed a mesocosm experiment in which plants were grown outdoors for four months with or without earthworms. Soil bacterial community structure was evaluated by a 16S rRNA-based metabarcoding approach. Litter decomposition rates were determined by using the tea bag index (TBI) and litter bags (olive residues). Earthworm numbers almost doubled throughout the experimental period. Independently of the plant species, earthworm presence had a significant impact on the structure of soil bacterial community, in terms of enhanced α- and β-diversity (especially that of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Myxococcota, and Verrucomicrobia) and increased 16S rRNA gene abundance (+89% in broccoli and +223% in faba bean). Microbial decomposition (TBI) was enhanced in the treatments with earthworms, and showed a significantly higher decomposition rate constant (kTBI) and a lower stabilization factor (STBI), whereas decomposition in the litter bags (dlitter) increased by about 6% in broccoli and 5% in faba bean. Earthworms significantly enhanced root growth (in terms of total length and fresh weight) of both plant species. Our results show the strong influence of earthworms and crop identity in shaping soil chemico-physical properties, soil bacterial community, litter decomposition and plant growth. These findings could be used for developing nature-based solutions that ensure the long-term biological sustainability of soil agro- and natural ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
carbon/nitrogen ratio, Eiseniasp, olive litter, soil bacteria, soil chemico-physical properties, soil sustainable management, Tea Bag Index
National Category
Ecology Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206659 (URN)10.3390/plants12061216 (DOI)000958105100001 ()36986903 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151357996 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-04-17Bibliographically approved
Sarneel, J. M., Barel, J. M., Duddigan, S., Keuskamp, J. A., Pastor, A., Sandén, T. & Blume-Werry, G. (2023). Reasons to not correct for leaching in TBI; Reply to Lind et al. (2022) [Letter to the editor]. Ecology and Evolution, 13(6), Article ID e10133.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reasons to not correct for leaching in TBI; Reply to Lind et al. (2022)
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2023 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e10133Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-211142 (URN)10.1002/ece3.10133 (DOI)001007557000001 ()37325714 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162170273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2022-02449
Available from: 2023-07-03 Created: 2023-07-03 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lembrechts, J. J., van den Hoogen, J., Dorrepaal, E., Larson, K., Sarneel, J. M., Walz, J., . . . Lenoir, J. (2022). Global maps of soil temperature. Global Change Biology, 28(9), 3110-3144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global maps of soil temperature
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2022 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 3110-3144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
bioclimatic variables, global maps, microclimate, near-surface temperatures, soil temperature, soil-dwelling organisms, temperature offset, weather stations
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-219790 (URN)10.1111/gcb.16060 (DOI)000753944300001 ()34967074 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85123931737 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 757833
Available from: 2024-01-19 Created: 2024-01-19 Last updated: 2024-01-19Bibliographically approved
Sarneel, J. M., Hefting, M. M., Visser, E. J. W., Díaz-Sierra, R., Voesenek, L. A. C. & Kowalchuk, G. A. (2022). Species traits interact with stress level to determine intraspecific facilitation and competition. Journal of Vegetation Science, 33(5), Article ID e13145.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Species traits interact with stress level to determine intraspecific facilitation and competition
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 33, no 5, article id e13145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Questions: Flooding and drought stress are expected to increase significantly across the world and plant responses to these abiotic changes may be mediated by plant–plant interactions. Stress tolerance and recovery often require a biomass investment that may have consequences for these plant–plant interactions. Therefore, we questioned whether phenotypic plasticity in response to flooding and drought affected the balance between competition and facilitation for species with specific adaptations to drought or flooding.

Location: Utrecht University. Methods: Stem elongation, root porosity, root:shoot ratio and biomass production were measured for six species during drought, well-drained and submerged conditions when grown alone or together with conspecifics. We quantified competition and facilitation as the ‘neighbour intensity effect’ directly after the 10-day treatment and again after a seven-day recovery period in well-drained conditions.

Results: Water stress, planting density and species identity interactively affected standardized stem elongation in a way that could lead to facilitation during submergence for species that preferably grow in wet soils. Root porosity was affected by the interaction between neighbour presence and time-step. Plant traits were only slightly affected during drought. The calculated neighbour interaction effect indicated facilitation for wetland species during submerged conditions and, after a period to recover from flooding, for species that prefer dry habitats.

Conclusions: Our results imply that changing plant–plant interactions in response to submergence and to a lesser extent to drought should be considered when predicting vegetation dynamics due to changing hydroclimatic regimes. Moreover, facilitation during a recovery period may enable species maladapted to flooding to persist.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
neighbour intensity effect, plant–plant interactions, recovery period, riparian vegetation, stress gradient hypothesis, water stress
National Category
Ecology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201089 (URN)10.1111/jvs.13145 (DOI)000857953000001 ()2-s2.0-85141198258 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-05099
Available from: 2022-11-18 Created: 2022-11-18 Last updated: 2022-11-18Bibliographically approved
Baladrón, A., Bejarano, M. D., Sarneel, J. M. & Boavida, I. (2022). Trapped between drowning and desiccation: riverine plants under hydropeaking. Science of the Total Environment, 829, Article ID 154451.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trapped between drowning and desiccation: riverine plants under hydropeaking
2022 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 829, article id 154451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydropeaking is part of hydropower production. The discontinuous release of turbined water during hydropeaking generates sudden rise and falls of the water levels, as well as extended droughts. These artificial flow fluctuations impose challenging growing conditions for riverine vegetation. In order to identify vulnerable/resistant plant species to hydropeaking and to evaluate the impact of contrasting hydropeaking scenarios (simplified (i.e., sudden deep floods, frequent soil saturation and drought) and real-life, power plant-induced scenarios), we measured germination, survival, and morphological and physiological attributes of a selection of 14 plant species commonly found along riparian areas. Species were subject to different hydropeaking scenarios during three months (vegetative period) in the field and in a greenhouse. Half of the species performed worse under hydropeaking in comparison to the control (e.g., less germination and biomass, lower growth rates, reduced stem and root length, physiological stress) but none of the tested hydropeaking scenarios was clearly more disruptive than others. Betula pubescens, Alnus incana and Filipendula ulmifolia showed the largest vulnerability to hydropeaking, while other species (e.g., Carex acuta) were resistant to it. Both in the field and in the greenhouse, plants in perturbed scenarios accumulated more 13C than in the control scenario indicating limited capacity to perform 13C isotope discrimination and evidencing plant physiological stress. The highest 13C abundances were found under drought or flooding conditions in the greenhouse, and under the highest hydropeaking intensities in the field (e.g., Betula pubescens). Our results suggest that any hydropeaking scheme can be equally detrimental in terms of plant performance. Hydropeaking schemes that combine periods of severe drought with long and frequent flooding episodes may create a hostile environment for riverine species. Further research on "hydropeaking-tolerant" plant traits is key to draw the boundaries beyond which riverine species can germinate, grow and complete their life cycle under hydropeaking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Drought, Flooding, Hydropeaking, Plant morphology, Riverine vegetation, Stoichiometry
National Category
Ecology Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193687 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154451 (DOI)000793203100013 ()35278540 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85127213424 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-05099
Available from: 2022-05-03 Created: 2022-05-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hunter, W. R., Williamson, A. & Sarneel, J. M. (2021). Using the Tea Bag Index to determine how two human pharmaceuticals affect litter decomposition by aquatic microorganisms. Ecotoxicology, 30(6), 1272-1278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the Tea Bag Index to determine how two human pharmaceuticals affect litter decomposition by aquatic microorganisms
2021 (English)In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1272-1278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study demonstrates that independent additive effects of two human pharmaceuticals, the antibiotic trimethoprim and the artificial estrogen 17a-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), inhibit plant litter decomposition by aquatic microorganisms. The constant release of pharmaceuticals, such as these, has the potential to affect aquatic microbial metabolism and alter biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Here we advance the Tea Bag Index (TBI) for decomposition by using it in a series of contaminant exposure experiments testing how interactions between trimethoprim and EE2 affect aquatic microbial activity. The TBI is a citizen science tool used to test microbial activity by measuring the differential degradation of green and rooibos tea as proxies for respectively labile and recalcitrant litter decomposition. Exposure to either trimethoprim or EE2 decreased decomposition of green tea, suggesting additive effects upon microbial activity. Exposure to EE2 alone decreased rooibos tea decomposition. Consequently, trimethoprim and EE2 stabilized labile organic matter against microbial degradation and restricted decomposition. We propose that the method outlined could provide a powerful tool for testing the impacts of multiple interacting pollutants upon microbial activity, at a range of scales, across aquatic systems and over ecologically relevant time scales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186283 (URN)10.1007/s10646-021-02435-0 (DOI)000661760300001 ()34131825 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85107973372 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2021-07-20 Created: 2021-07-20 Last updated: 2022-01-12Bibliographically approved
Sarneel, J. M., Sundqvist, M. K., Molau, U., Björkman, M. P. & Alatalo, J. M. (2020). Decomposition rate and stabilization across six tundra vegetation types exposed to >20 years of warming. Science of the Total Environment, 724, 1-8, Article ID 138304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decomposition rate and stabilization across six tundra vegetation types exposed to >20 years of warming
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2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 724, p. 1-8, article id 138304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Litter decomposition is an important driver of soil carbon and nutrient cycling in nutrient-limited Arctic ecosystems. However, climate change is expected to induce changes that directly or indirectly affect decomposition. We examined the direct effects of long-term warming relative to differences in soil abiotic properties associated with vegetation type on litter decomposition across six subarctic vegetation types.

Methods: In six vegetation types, rooibos and green tea bags were buried for 70–75 days at 8 cm depth inside warmed (by open-top chambers) and control plots that had been in place for 20–25 years. Standardized initial decomposition rate and stabilization of the labile material fraction of tea (into less decomposable material) were calculated from tea mass losses. Soil moisture and temperature were measured bi-weekly during summer and plant-available nutrients were measured with resin probes.

Results: Initial decomposition rate was decreased by the warming treatment. Stabilization was less affected by warming and determined by vegetation type and soil moisture. Soil metal concentrations impeded both initial decomposition rate and stabilization.

Conclusions: While a warmer Arctic climate will likely have direct effects on initial litter decomposition rates in tundra, stabilization of organic matter was more affected by vegetation type and soil parameters and less prone to be affected by direct effects of warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Open-top chamber, Global warming, Litter quality, Tea Bag Index for decomposition, Vegetation composition, Soil chemistry, Arctic
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-171946 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138304 (DOI)000532695100012 ()2-s2.0-85082674999 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-18 Created: 2020-06-18 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
Tea time for science [2014-04270_VR]; Umeå UniversityDo below and aboveground priority effects have any outdoor relevance? [2019-05099_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6187-499x

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