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Liu, Jing-Xia
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Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Rodríguez, M. A., Sandgren Hochhard, K., Vicente, A., Liu, J.-X. & Domellöf, F. P. (2019). Gene expression profile of extraocular muscles following resection strabismus surgery. Experimental Eye Research, 182, 182-193
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression profile of extraocular muscles following resection strabismus surgery
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2019 (English)In: Experimental Eye Research, ISSN 0014-4835, E-ISSN 1096-0007, Vol. 182, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to identify key biological processes triggered by resection surgery in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of a rabbit model of strabismus surgery by studying changes in gene expression. Resection surgery was performed in the superior rectus of 16 rabbits and a group of non-operated rabbits served as control. Muscle samples were collected from groups of four animals 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery and processed for RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemistry. We identified a total of 164; 136; 64 and 12 differentially expressed genes 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were involved in biological pathways related to metabolism, response to stimulus mainly related with regulation of immune response, cell cycle and extracellular matrix. A complementary pathway analysis and network analysis performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool corroborated and completed these findings. Collagen I, fibronectin and versican, evaluated by immunofluorescence, showed that changes at the gene expression level resulted in variation at the protein level. Tenascin-C staining in resected muscles demonstrated the formation of new tendon and myotendinous junctions. These data provide new insights about the biological response of the EOMs to resection surgery and may form the basis for future strategies to improve the outcome of strabismus surgery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Extraocular muscles, Strabismus, Gene expression, Resection surgery
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159869 (URN)10.1016/j.exer.2019.03.022 (DOI)000468258300021 ()30953624 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-02401Västerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Chandra, N., Liu, Y., Liu, J.-X., Frängsmyr, L., Wu, N., Silva, L. M., . . . Arnberg, N. (2019). Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans as Viral Decoy Receptors for Human Adenovirus Type 37. Viruses, 11(3), Article ID E247.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans as Viral Decoy Receptors for Human Adenovirus Type 37
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2019 (English)In: Viruses, ISSN 1999-4915, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 11, no 3, article id E247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Glycans on plasma membranes and in secretions play important roles in infection by many viruses. Species D human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-D37) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and infects target cells by interacting with sialic acid (SA)-containing glycans via the fiber knob domain of the viral fiber protein. HAdV-D37 also interacts with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but the outcome of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular requirements of HAdV-D37 fiber knob:GAG interactions using a GAG microarray and demonstrated that fiber knob interacts with a broad range of sulfated GAGs. These interactions were corroborated in cell-based assays and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Removal of heparan sulfate (HS) and sulfate groups from human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells by heparinase III and sodium chlorate treatments, respectively, reduced HAdV-D37 binding to cells. Remarkably, removal of HS by heparinase III enhanced the virus infection. Our results suggest that interaction of HAdV-D37 with sulfated GAGs in secretions and on plasma membranes prevents/delays the virus binding to SA-containing receptors and inhibits subsequent infection. We also found abundant HS in the basement membrane of the human corneal epithelium, which may act as a barrier to sub-epithelial infection. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the role of GAGs as viral decoy receptors and highlight the therapeutic potential of GAGs and/or GAG-mimetics in HAdV-D37 infection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
adenovirus, antiviral drugs, cellular receptor, decoy receptor, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, glycosaminoglycan, tropism
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158515 (URN)10.3390/v11030247 (DOI)000464389700003 ()30871026 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2013.0019Swedish Research Council, 2018-02401Västerbotten County CouncilWellcome trust, 099197MA
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Liu, J.-X. & Pedrosa-Domellöf, F. (2018). A novel type of multiterminal motor endplate in human extraocular muscles. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 59(1), 539-548
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel type of multiterminal motor endplate in human extraocular muscles
2018 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 539-548Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the relation between type of motor endplate, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit composition, and fiber types in human extraocular muscles (EOMs).

Methods: EOM samples collected from subjects aged 34 to 82 years were serially sectioned and processed for immunohistochemistry, with specific antibodies against different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, neurofilament, synaptophysin, and adult epsilon (ε) and fetal gamma (γ) AChR subunits as well as α-bungarotoxin.

Results: A novel type of motor endplate consisting of large, multiterminal en plaque endings was found in human EOMs, in addition to the previously well-described single en plaque and multiple en grappe endplates. Such novel endplates were abundant but exclusively observed in myofibers lacking MyHC slow and fast IIa but containing MyHC extraocular (MyHCeom), isoforms. Multiple en grappe endings were found only in myofibers containing MyHC slow-tonic isoform and contained fetal γ AChR subunit. Adult ε and fetal γ AChR subunits, alone or combined, were found in the multiterminal endplates. Distinct AChR subunits were present in adjacent motor endplates of a given myofiber containing MyHCeom.

Conclusions: Human EOMs have a more complex innervation pattern than previously described, comprising also a novel type of multiterminal motor endplate present in myofibers containing MyHCeom. The heterogeneity in AChR subunit composition in a given myofiber suggests the possible presence of polyneuronal innervation in human EOMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rockville: The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2018
Keywords
extraocular muscles, motor endplate, multiterminal motor endplate, en grappe, en plaque, polyneuronal innervation, myosin heavy chain, acetylcholine receptor subunit
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Ophthalmology
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145396 (URN)10.1167/iovs.17-22554 (DOI)000425855900064 ()29372252 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Rodríguez, M. A., Liu, J.-X., Parkkonen, K., Li, Z. & Domellöf, F. P. (2018). The Cytoskeleton in the Extraocular Muscles of Desmin Knockout Mice. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 59(12), 4847-4855
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cytoskeleton in the Extraocular Muscles of Desmin Knockout Mice
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2018 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 4847-4855Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the effect of absence of desmin on the extraocular muscles (EOMs) with focus on the structure and composition of the cytoskeleton.

Methods: The distribution of synemin, syncoilin, plectin, nestin, and dystrophin was evaluated on cross and longitudinal sections of EOMs and limb muscles from 1-year-old desmin knockout mice (desmin−/−) by immunofluorescence. General morphology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin while mitochondrial content and distribution were evaluated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and modified Gomori trichrome stainings.

Results: The muscle fibers of the EOMs in desmin−/− mice were remarkably well preserved in contrast to those in the severely affected soleus and the slightly affected gastrocnemius muscles. There were no signs of muscular pathology in the EOMs and all cytoskeletal proteins studied showed a correct location at sarcolemma and Z-discs. However, an increase of SDH staining and mitochondrial aggregates under the sarcolemma was detected.

Conclusions: The structure of the EOMs was well preserved in the absence of desmin. We suggest that desmin is not necessary for correct synemin, syncoilin, plectin, and dystrophin location on the cytoskeleton of EOMs. However, it is needed to maintain an appropriate mitochondrial distribution in both EOMs and limb muscles.

Keywords
extraocular muscles, knockout, desmin, cytoskeleton, intermediate filament
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153128 (URN)10.1167/iovs.18-24508 (DOI)000447347700007 ()30347079 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055140170 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Harandi, V. M., Gaied, A. R., Brännström, T., Pedrosa-Domellöf, F. & Liu, J.-X. (2016). Unchanged neurotrophic factors and their receptors correlate with sparing in extraocular muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 57(15), 6831-6842
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unchanged neurotrophic factors and their receptors correlate with sparing in extraocular muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
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2016 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 15, p. 6831-6842Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the impact of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on the extraocular muscles (EOMs) by examining the distribution of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and their receptors in EOMs and limb muscles from ALS transgenic mice.

Methods: Muscle samples collected from transgenic mice overexpressing human superoxide dismutase type 1 mutations (SOD1G93A, the most widely used mouse model of ALS) at 50 and 150 days as well as age-matched controls were analyzed with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and the neurotrophin receptors p75NTR, tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptor TrkB and TrkC, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1).

Results: There was an intrinsic difference in NTF expression between EOMs and limb muscles in control mice: EOMs presented significantly lower number of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) labeled for BDNF and NT-4 at 50 days, and for BDNF and GDNF at 150 days, compared with the control limb muscles of corresponding age. In ALS transgenic mice at 150 days, NTF expression in limb muscles was significantly changed but not in EOMs: the limb muscles presented a significant decline in the number of NMJs labeled for BDNF, NT-4, GDNF, p75NTR, TrkB, and TrkC, which was not observed in EOMs.

Conclusions: The significant differences in expression of NTFs on NMJs between EOMs and limb muscles in both control and ALS transgenic mice suggest that NTF may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS and the resistance of EOMs to the disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rockville: The association for research in vision and ophthalmology, 2016
Keywords
extraocular muscles, neuromuscular junctions, neurotrophin, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurotrophic factor
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Human Anatomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129395 (URN)10.1167/iovs.16-20074 (DOI)000392929500045 ()28002846 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85007286240 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-25 Created: 2016-12-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Thornell, L.-E., Carlsson, L., Eriksson, P.-O., Liu, J.-X., Österlund, C., Stål, P. & Pedrosa-Domellöf, F. (2015). Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres. Journal of Anatomy, 227(2), 136-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 136-156Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150years ago. It took, however, another 100years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umea University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
cytoskeleton, M-band, M-protein, muscle spindle, myomesin, nuclear bag, nuclear chain, titin
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106768 (URN)10.1111/joa.12338 (DOI)000357951900004 ()26179023 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-20 Created: 2015-08-07 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Vahid, H. M., Susanne, L., Shrikant, S. K., Thomas, B. & Jing-Xia, L. (2014). Analysis of Neurotrophic Factors in Limb and Extraocular Muscles of Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PLoS ONE, 9(10), Article ID e109833.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Neurotrophic Factors in Limb and Extraocular Muscles of Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e109833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs) from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients.

Keywords
neurotrophins, neurotrophic factor, limb muscles, extraocular muscles, ALS
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Medical Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96545 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0109833 (DOI)000346766200057 ()
Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Janbaz, A. H., Lindström, M., Liu, J. & Pedrosa-Domellöf, F. (2014). Intermediate Filaments in the Human Extraocular Muscles. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(8), 5151-5159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediate Filaments in the Human Extraocular Muscles
2014 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 5151-5159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE.

To investigate the distribution of the intermediate filament (IF) proteins desmin, vimentin, and nestin in human extraocular muscles (EOMs). METHODS. Healthy adult EOM samples were serially sectioned (5 and 1 mu m) and processed for immunohistochemistry, with specific antibodies (Abs) against desmin, vimentin, and nestin and different myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), including the newly characterized Ab MYH7b against MyHC slow tonic. The distribution of desmin was also studied in EOMs at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation.

RESULTS.

Desmin was present in the vast majority of muscle fibers. Notably, muscle fibers that contained MyHC slow tonic were either unlabeled or very weakly labeled with three different Abs against desmin. These muscle fibers had normal cytoarchitecture and intact basement membrane. In fetal muscle, desmin was also absent or weak in myotubes containing MyHC slow tonic. Nestin was detected in a large proportion of muscle fibers in the orbital layer and to some extent also in the global layer, whereas no muscle fibers contained vimentin. Desmin and nestin were enriched at neuromuscular junctions, as in limb muscle. In contrast, some myotendinous junctions lacked desmin or nestin.

CONCLUSIONS.

The human EOMs differed significantly from the other muscles in the body with respect to their IF composition. Desmin, hitherto regarded as a ubiquitous muscle cytoskeletal protein, was absent or only present in trace amounts in a subset of normal muscle fibers in adult and fetal EOMs. Nestin, normally downregulated early in the postnatal period, was present in a high proportion of adult muscle fibers.

Keywords
extraocular muscle, intermediate filament, desmin, myosin heavy chain slow tonic, nestin
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96638 (URN)10.1167/iovs.14-14316 (DOI)000343145500060 ()25028355 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Song, Y., Forsgren, S., Liu, J.-X., Yu, J.-G. & Stål, P. (2014). Unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral changes in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e116455
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral changes in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, p. e116455-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unilateral strength training can cause cross-transfer strength effects to the homologous contralateral muscles. However, the impact of the cross-over effects on the muscle tissue is unclear. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral alterations in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply, we have used an experimental rabbit model with unilateral unloaded overstrain exercise via electrical muscle stimulation (E/EMS). The soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of both exercised (E) and contralateral non-exercised (NE) legs (n = 24) were morphologically analyzed after 1w, 3w and 6w of EMS. Non-exercised rabbits served as controls (n = 6). After unilateral intervention the muscles of both E and NE legs showed myositis and structural and molecular tissue changes that to various degrees mirrored each other. The fiber area was bilaterally smaller than in controls after 3w of E/EMS in both SOL (E 4420 and NE 4333 µm2 vs. 5183 µm2, p<0.05) and GA (E 3572 and NE 2983 µm2 vs. 4697 µm2, p<0.02) muscles. After 6w of E/EMS, the percentage of slow MyHCI fibers was lower than in controls in the NE legs of SOL (88.1% vs. 98.1%, p<0.009), while the percentage of fast MyHCIIa fibers was higher in the NE legs of GA (25.7% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.02). The number of capillaries around fibers in the E and NE legs was lower (SOL 13% and 15%, respectively, GA 25% and 23%, respectively, p<0.05) than in controls. The overall alterations were more marked in the fast GA muscle than in the slow SOL muscle, which on the other hand showed more histopathological muscle changes. We conclude that unilateral repetitive unloaded overuse exercise via EMS causes myositis and muscle changes in fiber type proportions, fiber area and fiber capillarization not only in the exercised leg, but also in the homologous muscles in the non-exercised leg.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97982 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0116455 (DOI)000347120200113 ()25545800 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84919884174 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
McLoon, L. K., Harandi, V. M., Brännstrom, T., Andersen, P. M. & Liu, J.-X. (2014). Wnt and Extraocular Muscle Sparing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(9), 5482-5496
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wnt and Extraocular Muscle Sparing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
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2014 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5482-5496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The extraocular muscles (EOM) and their motor neurons are spared in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In limb muscle axon retraction from the neuromuscular junctions occurs early in the disease. Wnts, a conserved family of secreted signaling molecules, play a critical role in neuromuscular junction formation. This is the first study to examine Wnt signaling for its potential involvement in maintenance of normal morphology in EOMs in ALS.

METHODS: EOM and limb muscle axons, neuromuscular junctions, and myofibers from control, aging, and ALS patients and the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS were quantified for their expression of Wnt1, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt7a, and beta-catenin.

RESULTS: All four Wnt isoforms were expressed in most axon profiles in all human EOMs. Significantly fewer were positive for Wnt1, Wnt3a, and Wnt7a in the human limb muscles. Similar differential patterns in Wnt myofiber expression was also seen, except for Wnt7a, where expression was elevated. In the SOD1G93A mouse, all 4 Wnt isoforms were significantly decreased in the neuromuscular junctions at the terminal stage compared to age matched controls. Beta-catenin was activated in a subset of myofibers in EOM and limb muscle in all patients.

CONCLUSIONS: The differences in Wnt expression in EOM and limb muscle, particularly at the neuromuscular junction level, suggest that they play a role in the pathophysiology of ALS. Collectively, the data support a role for Wnt signaling in the preservation of the EOM in ALS and their dysregulation and the subsequent development of pathology in the ALS limb muscles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ARVO, The Association for Reserach in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2014
Keywords
extraocular muscles, Wnt, neuromuscular junctions, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, beta-catenin, skeletal muscle, SOD1(G93A) mice
National Category
Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91978 (URN)10.1167/iovs.14-14886 (DOI)000343146900003 ()25125606 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
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