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Claesson, Rolf
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Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
Jensen, A. B., Haubek, D., Claesson, R., Johansson, A. & Nørskov-Lauritsen, N. (2019). Comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility testing of a large collection of clinical strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans does not identify resistance to amoxicillin. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 46(8), 846-854
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility testing of a large collection of clinical strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans does not identify resistance to amoxicillin
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 846-854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: The present study aims to determine the susceptibility of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to amoxicillin by investigating a large collection of oral strains of diverse geographical origin.

METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-seven A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were serotyped using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of amoxicillin were determined using the agar dilution method (range 0.25 to 8.0 mg/L). The plates were spot-wise inoculated with approximately 104 colony-forming units, incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 C°, and visually inspected after 24 and 48 hours. A MIC ≤ 2.00 mg/L was categorised as susceptible using EUCAST interpretative criteria for Haemophilus species.

RESULTS: Amoxicillin MIC-values varied from 0.25 mg/L to 2.00 mg/L, and all tested strains, including strains previously reported as resistant, were susceptible to amoxicillin. The MIC50 was 1.00 mg/L and the MIC90 was 2.00 mg/L.

CONCLUSION: Meticulous investigation of strains including isolates previously reported as resistant could not confirm the emergence of resistance to β-lactams in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Based on the present in vitro results, amoxicillin can be considered a key oral antimicrobial agent for treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
EUCAST, Antimicrobial resistance, agar dilution method, breakpoints, β-lactams
National Category
Dentistry
Research subject
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159488 (URN)10.1111/jcpe.13148 (DOI)000476508700007 ()31124155 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068110794 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Jensen, A. B., Lund, M., Nørskov-Lauritsen, N., Johansson, A., Claesson, R., Reinholdt, J. & Haubek, D. (2019). Differential Cell Lysis Among Periodontal Strains of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotype of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype B Is Not Reflected in Dissimilar Expression and Production of Leukotoxin. Pathogens, 8(4), Article ID 211.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential Cell Lysis Among Periodontal Strains of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotype of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype B Is Not Reflected in Dissimilar Expression and Production of Leukotoxin
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2019 (English)In: Pathogens, ISSN 2076-0817, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leukotoxic potential of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains has been studied by the use of several methods, and results differ depending on the methods used. The aim of the present study was to perform a comprehensive examination of the leukotoxic potential of a collection of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains by use of three quantitative methods, Western blotting, ELISA, and mRNA expression assay and compare these results with previous data obtained by a cell lysis assay. A higher leukotoxic potential among JP2 genotype strains compared to non-JP2 genotype strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans was found by Western blotting, ELISA and mRNA expression assay. Leukotoxicity as determined by cell lysis assay showed a variation among strains examined, not only depending on being part of JP2 genotype vs. non-JP2 genotype group of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The leukotoxicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains as determined by cell lysis assay did not correspond to the leukotoxic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains as determined by three quantitative methods. A comparison of the results obtained by ELISA and mRNA expression assay showed a reasonable correlation between these two methods. It seems important to use more than one method to assess the LtxA-related virulence capacity of A. actinomycetemcomitans in order to obtain comprehensive understanding of the leukotoxic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
JP2 genotype, cell lysis assay, leukotoxin, mRNA assay, quantitative ELISA
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Research subject
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164810 (URN)10.3390/pathogens8040211 (DOI)31671616 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-02 Created: 2019-11-02 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A., Claesson, R., Höglund-Åberg, C., Haubek, D., Lindholm, M., Jasim, S. & Oscarsson, J. (2019). Genetic Profiling of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype B Isolated from Periodontitis Patients Living in Sweden. Pathogens, 8(3), 1-13, Article ID 153.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic Profiling of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype B Isolated from Periodontitis Patients Living in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Pathogens, ISSN 2076-0817, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-13, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with systemic diseases, such as endocarditis. By assessing a Ghanaian longitudinal adolescent cohort, we earlier recognized the cagE gene as a possible diagnostic marker for a subgroup of JP2 and non-JP2 genotype serotype b A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, associated with high leukotoxicity as determined in a semi-quantitative cell assay. This group of A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with the progression of attachment loss. In the present work, we used conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR to perform the cagE genotyping of our collection of 116 selected serotype b A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, collected over a period of 15 years from periodontitis patients living in Sweden. The A. actinomycetemcomitans strains carrying cagE (referred to as cagE+; n = 49) were compared to the cagE-negative strains (n = 67), present at larger proportions in the subgingival plaque samples, and were also much more prevalent in the young (≤35 years) compared to in the old (>35 years) group of patients. Our present results underline the potential use of cagE genotyping in the risk assessment of the development of periodontal attachment loss in Swedish adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; cagE; virB1; virB4; genotype; virulence
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Research subject
Infectious Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163485 (URN)10.3390/pathogens8030153 (DOI)000488003600042 ()31533208 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Ennibi, O. K., Claesson, R., Akkaoui, S., Reddahi, S., Kwamin, F., Haubek, D. & Johansson, A. (2019). High salivary levels of JP2 genotype of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with clinical attachment loss in Moroccan adolescents. Clinical and experimental dental research, 5(1), 44-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High salivary levels of JP2 genotype of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with clinical attachment loss in Moroccan adolescents
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2019 (English)In: Clinical and experimental dental research, ISSN 2057-4347, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has previously been shown that the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque is significantly associated with increased risk for clinical attachment loss. The highly leukotoxic JP2 genotype of this bacterium is frequently detected in adolescents with aggressive forms of periodontitis. The aims of the study were to quantify the levels of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans in saliva of Moroccan adolescents with the JP2 genotype earlier detected in the subgingival plaque. The salivary concentrations of inflammatory proteins were quantified and linked to the clinical parameters and microbial findings. Finally, a mouth rinse with leukotoxin-neutralizing effect was administrated and its effect on the levels the biomarkers and A. actinomycetemcomitans examined. The study population consisted of 22 adolescents that previously were found to be positive for the JP2 genotype in subgingival plaque. Periodontal registration and sampling of stimulated saliva was performed at baseline. A mouth rinse (active/placebo) was administrated, and saliva sampling repeated after 2 and 4 weeks rinse. The salivary levels of JP2 and non-JP2 were analyzed by quantitative PCR and inflammatory proteins by ELISA. Both the JP2 and the non-JP2 genotype were detected in all individuals with significantly higher levels of the non-JP2. Enhanced levels of the JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly correlated to the presence of attachment loss (≥3 mm). Salivary concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers did not correlate to periodontal condition or levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans. The use of active or placebo leukotoxin-neutralizing mouth rinse did not significantly interfered with the levels of these biomarkers. Saliva is an excellent source for detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans on individual basis, and high levels of the JP2 genotype were significantly associated with the presence of clinical attachment loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, JP2 genotype, interleukin‐1β, quantitative PCR, saliva, virulence blocking
National Category
Dentistry
Research subject
Odontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157103 (URN)10.1002/cre2.156 (DOI)000461560700007 ()30847232 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-09 Created: 2019-03-09 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Oscarsson, J., Claesson, R., Lindholm, M., Höglund-Åberg, C. & Johansson, A. (2019). Tools of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Evade the Host Response. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(7), Article ID 1079.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tools of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Evade the Host Response
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 1079Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Periodontitis is an infection-induced inflammatory disease that affects the tooth supporting tissues, i.e., bone and connective tissues. The initiation and progression of this disease depend on dysbiotic ecological changes in the oral microbiome, thereby affecting the severity of disease through multiple immune-inflammatory responses. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium associated with such cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. In the present review, we outline virulence mechanisms that help the bacterium to escape the host response. These properties include invasiveness, secretion of exotoxins, serum resistance, and release of outer membrane vesicles. Virulence properties of A. actinomycetemcomitans that can contribute to treatment resistance in the infected individuals and upon translocation to the circulation, also induce pathogenic mechanisms associated with several systemic diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, cytolethal distending toxin, invasiveness, leukotoxin, outer membrane vesicles, serum resistance
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Research subject
Infectious Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161754 (URN)10.3390/jcm8071079 (DOI)31336649 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
Lopes, J. P., Stylianou, M., Backman, E., Holmberg, S., Jass, J., Claesson, R. & Urban, C. F. (2018). Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence.. mBio, 9(6), Article ID e02120-18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence.
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2018 (English)In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, no 6, article id e02120-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microbial colonizers of humans have evolved to adapt to environmental cues and to sense nutrient availability. Oxygen is a constantly changing environmental parameter in different host tissues and in different types of infection. We describe how Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can modulate the host response under hypoxia and anoxia. We found that high infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection contributes to a low oxygen milieu in a murine subdermal abscess. A persistent hypoxic environment did not affect viability or metabolism of PMNs. Under oxygen deprivation, however, infection with C. albicans disturbed specific PMN responses. PMNs were not able to efficiently phagocytose, produce ROS, or release extracellular DNA traps. Failure to launch an adequate response was caused by C. albicans cell wall masking of β-glucan upon exposure to low oxygen levels which hindered PAMP sensing by Dectin-1 on the surfaces of PMNs. This in turn contributed to immune evasion and enhanced fungal survival. The cell wall masking effect is prolonged by the accumulation of lactate produced by PMNs under low oxygen conditions. Finally, adaptation to oxygen deprivation increased virulence of C. albicans which we demonstrated using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.IMPORTANCE Successful human colonizers have evolved mechanisms to bypass immune surveillance. Infiltration of PMNs to the site of infection led to the generation of a low oxygen niche. Exposure to low oxygen levels induced fungal cell wall masking, which in turn hindered pathogen sensing and antifungal responses by PMNs. The cell wall masking effect was prolonged by increasing lactate amounts produced by neutrophil metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In an invertebrate infection model, C. albicans was able to kill infected C. elegans nematodes within 2 days under low oxygen conditions, whereas the majority of uninfected controls and infected worms under normoxic conditions survived. These results suggest that C. albicans benefited from low oxygen niches to increase virulence. The interplay of C. albicans with innate immune cells under these conditions contributed to the overall outcome of infection. Adaption to low oxygen levels was in addition beneficial for C. albicans by reducing susceptibility to selected antifungal drugs. Hence, immunomodulation of host cells under low oxygen conditions could provide a valuable approach to improve current antifungal therapies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Microbiology, 2018
Keywords
Candida albicans, PMN, abscesses, anoxia, beta-glucan, fungal cell wall, fungal masking, hypoxia, immune evasion, mycology, neutrophil
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153288 (URN)10.1128/mBio.02120-18 (DOI)000454730100052 ()30401781 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-M 2014-02281Swedish Research Council, 2017-01681The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1453Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse Knowledge Foundation, 20140180
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Claesson, R., Sjögren, U., Esberg, A., Brundin, M. & Granlund, M. (2017). Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces haliotis, coccoid Actinomyces species isolated from the human oral cavity. Anaerobe, 48, 19-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces haliotis, coccoid Actinomyces species isolated from the human oral cavity
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2017 (English)In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 48, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are few reports on the bacterial species Actinomyces radicidentis in the literature. In this study, putative A. radicidentis isolates were collected from 16 root canal samples from 601 examined patients. The isolates were examined by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Arbitrarily-primed (AP-) PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and MALDI-TOF analyses. In parallel, two A. radicidentis reference strains and two putative A. radicidentis isolates from United Kingdom were tested. Sixteen of the 18 isolates were confirmed as A. radicidentis. The remaining two isolates, both of which were isolated from root canals (one from Sweden and the other from the UK), but were identified as Actinomyces haliotis by sequencing ∼ 1300 base pairs of the 16S rRNA-gene. This isolates had a divergent, but between them similar, AP-PCR pattern, and a common distribution of sequence signatures in the 16S rRNA gene, but were not identified by MALDI-TOF. A. haliotis is a close relative to A. radicidentis, hitherto only been described from a sea-snail. The identity of A. haliotis was confirmed by a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences with species specific sequences included, and by additional biochemical tests. The examined bacteria exhibited similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns when tested for 10 separate antibiotic classes with E-tests (bioMérieux). The MIC90 for β-lactams (benzylpenicillin and cefuroxime) and vancomycin was 0.5 mg/L, for colistin and ciprofloxacin 8 mg/mL and for the other antibiotic classes ≤ 25 mg/mL The isolation of A. haliotis from infected dental root canals cast doubt on the accepted opinion that all Actinomyces infections have an endogenous source.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
AP-PCR phylogenetic tree, actinomyces species, MALDI-TOF, root canal infections
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139074 (URN)10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.011 (DOI)000419417700004 ()28647397 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Claesson, R., Höglund-Åberg, C., Haubek, D. & Johansson, A. (2017). Age-related prevalence and characteristics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients living in Sweden. Journal of Oral Microbiology, 9, Article ID 1334504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age-related prevalence and characteristics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients living in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Journal of Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2000-2297, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 9, article id 1334504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates of this bacterium. Design: Data from microbiological analyses of 3459 subgingival plaque samples collected from 1445 patients, 337 'younger' patients (<= 35 yrs) and 1108 'older' patients (>35 yrs) during 15 years (2000-2014), has been summerized. Isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans were serotyped, leukotoxin promoter typed (JP2 and non JP2) and arbitrarily primed PCR (APPCR) genotyped. The origin of the JP2 genotype detected in the study population was determined. Results: The prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans was higher among younger than older patients and samples from the younger patients contained higher proportions of the bacterium. Serotype b was more prevalent among younger patients and the majorty of these isolates was from the same AP-PCR genotype. The JP2 genotype was detected in 1.2% of the patients, and the majority of these carriers were of non-African origin. Conslusions: For presence and charcteristics of A. actinomycetemcomitans in clinical samples the age of the carriers were a discriminating factor. Additional, apparently non- African carriers of the JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans were identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, leukotoxin, JP2, serotypes, AP-PCR genotypes, crobiological diagnostics
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137819 (URN)10.1080/20002297.2017.1334504 (DOI)000404392200001 ()
Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Esberg, A., Sheng, N., Mårell, L., Claesson, R., Persson, K., Borén, T. & Strömberg, N. (2017). Streptococcus Mutans Adhesin Biotypes that Match and Predict Individual Caries Development. EBioMedicine, 24, 205-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streptococcus Mutans Adhesin Biotypes that Match and Predict Individual Caries Development
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2017 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 24, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dental caries, which affects billions of people, is a chronic infectious disease that involves Streptococcus mutans, which is nevertheless a poor predictor of individual caries development. We therefore investigated if adhesin types of S.mutans with sucrose-independent adhesion to host DMBT1 (i.e. SpaP A, B or C) and collagen (i.e. Cnm, Cbm) match and predict individual differences in caries development. The adhesin types were measured in whole saliva by qPCR in 452 12-year-old Swedish children and related to caries at baseline and prospectively at a 5-year follow-up. Strains isolated from the children were explored for genetic and phenotypic properties. The presence of SpaP B and Cnm subtypes coincided with increased 5-year caries increment, and their binding to DMBT1 and saliva correlated with individual caries scores. The SpaP B subtypes are enriched in amino acid substitutions that coincided with caries and binding and specify biotypes of S. mutans with increased acid tolerance. The findings reveal adhesin subtypes of S. mutans that match and predict individual differences in caries development and provide a rationale for individualized oral care.

Keywords
Adhesion, Chronic infections, Dental caries, SpaP, Streptococcus mutans, Virulence
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140203 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.09.027 (DOI)000414392900033 ()28958656 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 10906
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A., Claesson, R., Höglund Åberg, C., Haubek, D. & Oscarsson, J. (2017). The cagE gene sequence as a diagnostic marker to identify JP2 and non-JP2 highly leukotoxic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains.. Journal of Periodontal Research, 52(5), 903-912
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The cagE gene sequence as a diagnostic marker to identify JP2 and non-JP2 highly leukotoxic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains.
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Periodontal Research, ISSN 0022-3484, E-ISSN 1600-0765, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is involved in oral and systemic infections, and is associated with, eg aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. The cagE gene encodes a ≈39 kDa putative exotoxin expressed by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The level of conservation of cagE, and its possible significance in periodontal disease, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, the role of the cagE gene as a diagnostic marker has been investigated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:We have used conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and whole genome sequencing data to determine the prevalence of cagE in A. actinomycetemcomitans based on analysis of: (i) 249 isolates, collected and cultivated in a Ghanaian longitudinal cohort study; (ii) a serotype b collection of 19 strains; and (iii) the 36 A. actinomycetemcomitans genomes available in the NCBI database.

RESULTS:Whereas cagE was absent in the other serotypes, our data support that this gene sequence is linked to a virulent and highly leukotoxic group of serotype b strains, including both JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

CONCLUSION:We propose that cagE has the potential to be used as a PCR-based gene marker for the identification of a virulent and highly leukotoxic group of serotype b strains, including both JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes. This finding might be of importance in the risk assessment of the development of periodontal attachment loss in young individuals and hence suggested to be a relevant discovery in future development of new diagnostic tools and/or treatment strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, aggressive periodontitis, cagE, genotype, virulence, high leukotoxicity
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133592 (URN)10.1111/jre.12462 (DOI)000409224500011 ()28397250 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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