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Danielsson, Ulla
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Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Wiklund, M., Danielsson, U., Strömbäck, M. & Bengs, C. (2015). Dissonanser och möjligheter: i ljuset av genus, normativitet och samhällets individualisering. In: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällsfrågor (Ed.), När livet känns fel: ungas upplevelser kring psykisk ohälsa (pp. 153-173). Stockholm: mucf.se
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissonanser och möjligheter: i ljuset av genus, normativitet och samhällets individualisering
2015 (Swedish)In: När livet känns fel: ungas upplevelser kring psykisk ohälsa / [ed] Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällsfrågor, Stockholm: mucf.se , 2015, p. 153-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I denna fördjupande artikel riktar vi blickarna mot ungas psykiska ohälsa – dissonanser och möjligheter – i förhållande till genuskonstruktioner, normativitet och inflytelserika samhällstrender som individualisering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: mucf.se, 2015
Keywords
genus, modernitet, psykisk ohälsa, stress, ungdomar, unga vuxna, kropp
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Physiotherapy General Practice
Research subject
gender studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101549 (URN)
Projects
Stress and Health in Youth (Umeå SHY)
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Strömbäck, M., Wiklund, M., Bengs, C. & Danielsson, U. (2015). ”Jag skakar” tjejers uttryck för psykisk ohälsa. In: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor (Ed.), När livet känns fel: ungas upplevelser kring psykisk ohälsa (pp. 174-196). Stockholm: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Jag skakar” tjejers uttryck för psykisk ohälsa
2015 (Swedish)In: När livet känns fel: ungas upplevelser kring psykisk ohälsa / [ed] Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor, Stockholm: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor , 2015, p. 174-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Hur tänker unga kvinnor själva om sin psykiska hälsa och hur tar den sig uttryck? Artikeln fördjupar förståelsen för hur tonårstjejer och unga kvinnor uttrycker psykisk ohälsa utifrån egna berättelser. Ofta använder de bildspråk, liknelser och metaforer för att förklara och begripliggöra hur de mår och hur de har det i livet. Avslutningsvis diskuterar vi de unga kvinnornas erfarenheter utifrån genus- och maktperspektiv.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor, 2015
Keywords
psykisk ohälsa, stress, genus, ungdomar, unga vuxna, flickor, socialt stöd, interventioner, sociala medier, Internet, intervjuer
National Category
Physiotherapy General Practice Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
genusvetenskap; Family Medicine; Physiotherapy; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-101552 (URN)
Projects
Stress and Health in Youth (Umeå SHY)
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, U. E., Bengs, C., Samuelsson, E. & Johansson, E. E. (2011). "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on depression narratives of young Swedish women and men. Qualitative Health Research, 21(5), 612-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on depression narratives of young Swedish women and men
2011 (English)In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 612-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2011
National Category
Psychiatry General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30889 (URN)10.1177/1049732310391272 (DOI)21149850 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-21 Created: 2010-01-21 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lehti, A., Johansson, E. E., Bengs, C., Danielsson, U. & Hammarström, A. (2010). "The Western gaze": An analysis of medical research publications concerning the expressions of depression, focusing on ethnicity and gender. Health Care for Women International, 31(2), 100-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"The Western gaze": An analysis of medical research publications concerning the expressions of depression, focusing on ethnicity and gender
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2010 (English)In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 100-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our aim of this study was to explore how authors of medical articles wrote about different symptoms and expressions of depression in men and women from various ethnic groups as well as to analyze the meaning of gender and ethnicity for expressions of depression. A database search was carried out using PubMed. Thirty articles were identified and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Approaches differ with regard to how depression is described and interpreted in different cultures in relation to illness complaints, illness meaning, and diagnosis of depression. Articles often present issues based on a Western point of view. This may lead to “cultural or gender gaps,” which we refer to as “the Western gaze,” which may in turn influence the diagnosis of depression.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22879 (URN)10.1080/07399330903067861 (DOI)000275687500001 ()
Available from: 2009-05-19 Created: 2009-05-19 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, U. E. (2010). Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression. Läkartidningen (23), 1537
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression
2010 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 23, p. 1537-Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Depressiv sjukdom, Kvinnlig, Manlig, Könsfaktorer, Tecken och symtom, Självskattning, Terminologi, principer
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40723 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, U. E. (2010). Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression i en primärvårdskontext. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression i en primärvårdskontext
2010 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Struck by lightning or slowly suffocating : gendered expressions of depression in a primary health care context
Abstract [en]

Depression is a common mental health problem in primary health care. One third of the Swedish population is expected to experience depression at some point in their lives. The understanding of depression has expanded, both from a lay and primary health care perspective. The number of persons considering themselves as depressed, receiving the diagnosis, and getting treatment for it has increased steadily over the last decades.

Unchanged, however, is that depression is diagnosed twice as often in women as in men, while twice as many men as women commit suicide. These gender differences appear in adolescence. In earlier research biomedical, psychological, and social-cultural explanations of gender differences have been discussed. Patient’s own perspectives have more seldom stood in focus, and men’s narratives in particular are still scarce. In this thesis, gender, i.e. how to be a woman or a man, is considered as a construct, formed and negotiated in social interaction.

The aim of the study is to explore the gendered face of depression from a patient perspective: How is depression expressed and explained by patients in primary health care, by women and men, adults and adolescents? How are depressed women and men portrayed in the media? How do patient and media accounts of depression compare with the perspective offered in medical research articles?

Method and material The analyses are based on data from three different sources: patient narratives, newspaper portrayals and scientific medical articles.

– 37 in-depth interviews were undertaken with primary health care patients diagnosed with depression. Informants were chosen to include both men and women, grown-ups (Studies I + II) and young adults (Study V) of varying occupational and social class backgrounds. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory.

– 26 articles portraying lay informants with depression (Study III) were drawn from three major Swedish daily newspapers by a search of database Mediearkivet 2002. The articles were analyzed by qualitative content analysis.

–82 scientific articles concerning depression in relation to gender were identified in a PubMed search 2002. The understanding of depression in these articles was explored and compared with findings in the grown-up patient narratives and in the media portrayals by means of discourse analysis (Study IV).

Findings Study I captured women’s and men’s formulations of their experiences of depression. To be marked with demands constituted a central experience for both women and men, but the outward manifestations differed in relation to gender as well as to class. Home and work had different priority. Men talked more about physical distress (often chest pain) than about emotions. Women readily verbalized emotional distress – shame and guilt – while physical symptoms were vague and secondary (often about the stomach). Men dealt with insecurity by aggrandizing their previous competence, women by self-effacement.

Study II disclosed gendered trajectories into depression. Four symbolic illness narratives were identified: struck by lightning, nagging darkness, blackout and slowly suffocating. Most of the men considered their bodies suddenly “struck” by external circumstances beyond their control. The stories of women in the study were more diverse, reflecting all four illness narratives. However, the women had a tendency to blame their own personality and to describe depression as insidious and originating from the inside. The women expressed feelings of guilt and shame but also conveyed a personal responsibility and concern with relationships.

Study III identified four themes in media portrayals of depression: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control and explaining the illness. The mediated image of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women’s stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression.

Study IV revealed gaps in how depression in relation to gender is understood by the patients, the media, and the medical research establishment. There were differences in recognition, in understanding of the reasons, and in contextualization of depression. Although women and men described different symptoms and reasons for falling ill, in scientific articles these gendered differences were conceptualized mainly in terms of hormones and other biological markers.

Study V elucidated the impact of gender on adolescent depression. The young women and men were all striving to be normal, influenced by demanding media images, confronted by identity trouble, and overwhelmed by feelings. They had dreams of an ordinary family and described normative expectations. Getting a safety net of friends and other adults was a way out. Both the young women and men were eager to communicate their distress when given the opportunity. This seemed especially important to some of the young men, who in talking about their emotional problems transgressed gender norms.

Conclusions Patient perspectives enrich the understanding of gendered expressions of depression by making visible transgressions of and breaks with stereotype gender norms. Gender awareness is an important key in clinical consultation. To recognize gendered narratives of illness might have a salutary potential, making depression more visible among men, and relieving self-blame among women. By re-evaluating restrictive gender patterns, the clinician might encourage development of healthier practices of how to be a man or a woman, a development especially important for adolescents.

An integrated model for understanding biological, gender and cultural aspects of depression has yet to be developed. As general practitioners we have a unique possibility to see and to study the whole individual in her social and cultural context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå university, 2010. p. 59
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1325
Keywords
depression, gender, class, shame, adolescents, media, primary health care, consultation, grounded theory, qualitative research
National Category
General Practice
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30910 (URN)978-91-7264-935-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-12, Betula, NUS, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-01-22 Created: 2010-01-21 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Johansson, E. E., Bengs, C., Danielsson, U. E. & Lehti, A. (2009). Gaps between patients, media and academic medicine in discourses on gender and depression: a metasynthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 19(5), 633-644
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaps between patients, media and academic medicine in discourses on gender and depression: a metasynthesis
2009 (English)In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
depression, discourse analysis, gender, medical/health care discourse, metasynthesis
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-22950 (URN)10.1177/1049732309333920 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-20 Created: 2009-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Hammarström, A., Lehti, A., Danielsson, U., Bengs, C. & Johansson, E. (2009). Gender-related explanatory models of depression: a critical evaluation of medical articles. Public Health, 123(10), 689-693
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender-related explanatory models of depression: a critical evaluation of medical articles
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2009 (English)In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 123, no 10, p. 689-693Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Although research has consistently shown a higher prevalence of depression among women compared with men, there is a lack of consensus regarding explanatory factors for these gender-related differences. The aim of this paper was to analyse the scientific quality of different gender-related explanatory models of depression in the medical database PubMed.

Study design: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of PubMed articles.

Methods: In a database search in PubMed for 2002, 82 articles on gender and depression were selected and analysed with qualitative and quantitative content analyses. In total, 10 explanatory factors and four explanatory models were found. The ISI Web of Science database was searched in order to obtain the citation number and journal impact factor for each article.

Results: The most commonly used gender-related explanatory model for depression was the biomedical model (especially gonadal hormones), followed by the sociocultural and psychological models. Compared with the other models, the biomedical model scored highest on bibliometric measures but lowest on measures of multifactorial dimensions and differences within the group of men/women.

Conclusion: The biomedical model for explaining gender-related aspects of depression had the highest quality when bibliometric methods were used. However, the sociocultural and psychological models had higher quality than the biomedical model when multifactoriality and intersectionality were analysed. There is a need for the development of new methods in order to evaluate the scientific quality of research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keywords
Public health, Depression, Gender, Explanatory models, Bibliometric methods, Intersectionality, Multifactoriality
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30096 (URN)10.1016/j.puhe.2009.09.010 (DOI)19853877 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, U. E., Bengs, C., Lehti, A., Hammarström, A. & Johansson, E. E. (2009). Struck by lightning or slowly suffocating: gendered trajectories into depression. BMC Family Practice, 10(1), 56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struck by lightning or slowly suffocating: gendered trajectories into depression
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2009 (English)In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 56-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In family practice depression is a common mental health problem and one with marked gender differences; women are diagnosed as depressed twice as often as men. A more comprehensive explanatory model of depression that can give an understanding of, and tools for changing, this gender difference is called for. This study explores how primary care patients experience, understand and explain their depression.

Methods: Twenty men and women of varying ages and socioeconomic backgrounds diagnosed with depression according to ICD-10 were interviewed in-depth. Data were assessed and analyzed using Grounded Theory.

Results: The core category that emerged from analysis was "Gendered trajectories into depression". Thereto, four categories were identified – "Struck by lightning", "Nagging darkness", "Blackout" and "Slowly suffocating" – and presented as symbolic illness narratives that showed gendered patterns. Most of the men in our study considered that their bodies were suddenly "struck" by external circumstances beyond their control. The stories of study women were more diverse, reflecting all four illness narratives. However, the dominant pattern was that women thought that their depression emanated from internal factors, from their own personality or ways of handling life. The women were more preoccupied with shame and guilt, and conveyed a greater sense of personal responsibility and concern with relationships.

Conclusion: Recognizing gendered narratives of illness in clinical consultation may have a salutary potential, making more visible depression among men while relieving self-blame among women, and thereby encouraging the development of healthier practices of how to be a man or a woman.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: , 2009
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30888 (URN)10.1186/1471-2296-10-56 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-21 Created: 2010-01-21 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, U. E. & Johansson, E. E. (2005). Beyond weeping and crying: a gender analysis of women´s and men´s expressions of depression. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 23, 171-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond weeping and crying: a gender analysis of women´s and men´s expressions of depression
2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 23, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. To explore depression from a gender perspective, by capturing depressed women's and men's formulations of their experiences and understanding of their situation. Design. Qualitative interview study. Setting. A healthcare centre in northern Sweden. Subjects. Eighteen patients who had been diagnosed with depression and treated for at least 6 months were interviewed in depth, both women and men of different ages and social status. Open questions were posed around the themes of Malterud's key questions, focusing especially on how the informants conveyed their experiences. Interviewing and qualitative data analysis went on simultaneously. Results. The experience of depression held similarities for men and women, but the outward manifestations differed by gender as well as socioeconomic status. Though experiences of high demands underlay the narratives of all informants, home or work had different priority. Men talked more easily about physical distress – often the heart – than about emotions. Women verbalized more readily emotional distress – shame and guilt – while physical symptoms often revolved around the stomach. Men dealt with insecurity by aggrandizing their previous competence, women by self-effacement. Conclusion. As clinicians we must listen attentively not only to the manifest but to the avoided or unarticulated. By doing so we might counteract normative gender patterns that highlight the depression of women and conceal that of men.

Keywords
depression, mental, gender-based analysis, crying, patients, social status, medical care
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40722 (URN)10.1080/02813430510031315 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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