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Pudas, Sara, Fil. Dr.
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Nyberg, L. & Pudas, S. (2019). Successful Memory Aging. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 219-243
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Successful Memory Aging
2019 (English)In: Annual Review of Psychology, ISSN 0066-4308, E-ISSN 1545-2085, Vol. 70, p. 219-243Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For more than 50 years, psychologists, gerontologists, and, more recently, neuroscientists have considered the possibility of successful aging. How to define successful aging remains debated, but well-preserved age-sensitive cognitive functions, like episodic memory, is an often-suggested criterion. Evidence for successful memory aging comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that some older individuals display high and stable levels of performance. Successful memory aging may be accomplished via multiple paths. One path is through brain maintenance, or relative lack of age-related brain pathology. Through another path, successful memory aging can be accomplished despite brain pathology by means of efficient compensatory and strategic processes. Genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors influence memory aging via both paths. Some of these factors can be promoted throughout the life course, which, at the individual as well as the societal level, can positively impact successful memory aging.

Keywords
successful memory aging, brain maintenance, lifestyle, genetics
National Category
Psychology Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152056 (URN)10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103052 (DOI)000456388300010 ()29949727 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Pudas, S., Josefsson, M., Rieckmann, A. & Nyberg, L. (2018). Longitudinal evidence for increased functional response in frontal cortex for older adults with hippocampal atrophy and memory decline. Cerebral Cortex, 28(3), 936-948
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal evidence for increased functional response in frontal cortex for older adults with hippocampal atrophy and memory decline
2018 (English)In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 936-948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The functional organization of the frontal cortex is dynamic. Age-related increases in frontal functional responses have been shown during various cognitive tasks, but the cross-sectional nature of most past studies makes it unclear whether these increases reflect reorganization or stable individual differences. Here, we followed 130 older individuals' cognitive trajectories over 20-25 years with repeated neuropsychological assessments every 5th year, and identified individuals with stable or declining episodic memory. Both groups displayed significant gray matter atrophy over 2 successive magnetic resonance imaging sessions 4 years apart, but the decline group also had a smaller volume of the right hippocampus. Only individuals with declining memory demonstrated increased prefrontal functional responses during memory encoding and retrieval over the 4-year interval. Regions with increased functional recruitment were located outside, or on the borders of core task-related networks, indicating an expansion of these over time. These longitudinal findings offer novel insight into the mechanisms behind age-associated memory loss, and are consistent with a theoretical model in which hippocampus atrophy, past a critical threshold, induces episodic-memory decline and altered prefrontal functional organization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
aging, fMRI, hippocampus, longitudinal study, memory decline, prefrontal cortex
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131270 (URN)10.1093/cercor/bhw418 (DOI)000426817600010 ()28119343 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pudas, S. & Rönnlund, M. (2018). School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, Article ID gby137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts
2018 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, article id gby137Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Evidence is accumulating that early-life characteristics and experiences contribute significantly to differences in cognitive aging. This study investigated whether school performance at age 12 predicted late-life level and rate of memory change over 15–25 years, and whether its potential protective influence on memory change was mediated by educational attainment or income.

Methods: Latent growth curve models were fitted to 15–25 year longitudinal memory data from a population-based sample, stratified on age cohorts (n = 227, born 1909–1935; n = 301, born 1938–1954).

Results: A latent-level school grade variable significantly predicted both memory level and slope in later-born cohorts. Higher grades were associated with higher level and reduced decline, measured between ages 45 and 70 years, on average. In the earlier-born cohorts, grades predicted memory level, but not slope, measured between ages 66 and 81 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that the protective influence of higher school grades in later-born cohorts was partially mediated by educational attainment, but independent of income.

Discussion: The results suggest that higher childhood school performance is protective against age-related cognitive decline in younger or later-born cohorts, for which further education has been more accessible. Education may exert such influence through increased cognitive reserve or more well-informed health- and lifestyle decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2018
Keywords
Individual differences, Life course and developmental change, Longitudinal change, Memory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154279 (URN)10.1093/geronb/gby137 (DOI)30445430 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-02-13
Gorbach, T., Pudas, S., Lundquist, A., Orädd, G., Josefsson, M., Salami, A., . . . Nyberg, L. (2017). Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 51, 167-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline
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2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 51, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 

Keywords
Aging, cognitive decline, episodic memory, hippocampus, longitudinal changes, non-ignorable attrition
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128725 (URN)10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.12.002 (DOI)000397168600018 ()28089351 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationRagnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Rieckmann, A., Pudas, S. & Nyberg, L. (2017). Longitudinal Changes in Component Processes of Working Memory. eNeuro, 4(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal Changes in Component Processes of Working Memory
2017 (English)In: eNeuro, E-ISSN 2373-2822, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Working memory (WM) entails maintenance and manipulation of information in the absence of sensory input. This study investigated the trajectories and neural basis of these component processes of WM functions in aging. Longitudinal human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are presented from 136 older individuals (55–80 years) who were scanned at baseline and again 4 years later. We obtained evidence that age-related changes in parietal and frontal components of the WM core network are dissociable in terms of their role in maintenance of perceptual representations and further manipulation of this information, respectively. Individual difference analyses in performance subgroups showed that only prefrontal changes in fMRI activation were accompanied by changes in performance, but parietal brain activity was related to study dropout. We discuss the results in terms of possible neurobiological causes underlying separable aging-related declines in inferior parietal cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex that differentially affect WM functions.

National Category
Neurosciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132222 (URN)10.1523/ENEURO.0052-17.2017 (DOI)000397567900008 ()
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationRagnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Degerman, S., Josefsson, M., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Wennstedt, S., Landfors, M., Haider, Z., . . . Adolfsson, R. (2017). Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age. Neurobiology of Aging, 55, 167-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age
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2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 55, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132221 (URN)10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.02.009 (DOI)000405068100018 ()28292535 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Sundström, A. & Pudas, S. (2017). Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure. Intelligence, 61, 78-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure
2017 (English)In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
g factor, Early cognitive ability, Midlife, Longitudinal, BMI, Pulse pressure
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131941 (URN)10.1016/j.intell.2017.01.007 (DOI)000395606300012 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Nyberg, L., Pudas, S. & Lundquist, A. (2017). Structural and functional imaging of aging: longitudinal sudies (2ed.). In: Roberto Cabeza, Lars Nyberg, and Denise C. Park (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of aging: linking cognitive and cerebral aging (pp. 155-182). New York: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and functional imaging of aging: longitudinal sudies
2017 (English)In: Cognitive neuroscience of aging: linking cognitive and cerebral aging / [ed] Roberto Cabeza, Lars Nyberg, and Denise C. Park, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 2, p. 155-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter on longitudinal structural and functional brain imaging examines points of convergence and divergence in findings from neuroimaging studies using cross-sectional versus longitudinal designs. Representative longitudinal age gradients are identified. It presents key methodological issues in longitudinal imaging, including test-retest effects, the influence of attrition, and different kinds of missing data. Various ways of handling data missingness in statistical analyses are also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Oxford University Press, 2017 Edition: 2
Keywords
Longitudinal design, cross-sectional study, attrition, test-retest reliability, data missingness
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131280 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199372935.003.0007 (DOI)9780199372935 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Pudas, S. (2016). Aging of memory and brain functions: usual and successful (1ed.). In: Alexandra Isabel Dias Reis & Luis Faísca (Ed.), From Neuroscience to Neurospyschology: the study of the human brain. Volume II (pp. 163-192). Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones Corporación Universitaria Reformada
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aging of memory and brain functions: usual and successful
2016 (English)In: From Neuroscience to Neurospyschology: the study of the human brain. Volume II / [ed] Alexandra Isabel Dias Reis & Luis Faísca, Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones Corporación Universitaria Reformada , 2016, 1, p. 163-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones Corporación Universitaria Reformada, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131292 (URN)978-958-57406-8-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-02-10 Created: 2017-02-10 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Adams, H. H. H., Hibar, D. P., Chouraki, V., Stein, J. L., Nyquist, P. A., Renteria, M. E., . . . Thompson, P. M. (2016). Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association. Nature Neuroscience, 19(12), 1569-1582
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
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2016 (English)In: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1569-1582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.

National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129681 (URN)10.1038/nn.4398 (DOI)000389011900016 ()
Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
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