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Svärd, Petter
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Karakostas, V., Goumas, G., Bayuh Lakew, E., Elmroth, E., Gerangelos, S., Kolberg, S., . . . Koziris, N. (2018). Efficient Resource Management for Data Centers: The ACTiCLOUD Approach. In: Mudge T., Pnevmatikatos D.N. (Ed.), 2018 International conference on embedded computer systems: architectures, modeling, and simulation (SAMOS XVIII). Paper presented at SAMOS XVIII, July 15–19, 2018, Pythagorion, Samos Island, Greece (pp. 244-246). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Resource Management for Data Centers: The ACTiCLOUD Approach
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2018 (English)In: 2018 International conference on embedded computer systems: architectures, modeling, and simulation (SAMOS XVIII) / [ed] Mudge T., Pnevmatikatos D.N., Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 244-246Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Despite their proliferation as a dominant computing paradigm, cloud computing systems lack effective mechanisms to manage their vast resources efficiently. Resources are stranded and fragmented, limiting cloud applicability only to classes of applications that pose moderate resource demands. In addition, the need for reduced cost through consolidation introduces performance interference, as multiple VMs are co-located on the same nodes. To avoid such issues, current providers follow a rather conservative approach regarding resource management that leads to significant underutilization. ACTiCLOUD is a three-year Horizon 2020 project that aims at creating a novel cloud architecture that breaks existing scale-up and share-nothing barriers and enables the holistic management of physical resources, at both local and distributed cloud site levels. This extended abstract provides a brief overview of the resource management part of ACTiCLOUD, focusing on the design principles and the components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series
Keywords
resource management, resource efficiency, cloud computing, data centers, in-memory databases, NUMA, heterogeneous, scale-up/out
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154435 (URN)10.1145/3229631.3236095 (DOI)000475843000033 ()2-s2.0-85060997517 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6494-2 (ISBN)
Conference
SAMOS XVIII, July 15–19, 2018, Pythagorion, Samos Island, Greece
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P., Li, W., Wadbro, E., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2015). Continuous Datacenter Consolidation. In: 2015 IEEE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE (CLOUDCOM): . Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing Techonology and science, Vancouver, Canada, Nov 30-Dec 03, 2015. (pp. 387-396).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous Datacenter Consolidation
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE (CLOUDCOM), 2015, p. 387-396Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Efficient mapping of Virtual Machines (VMs) onto physical servers is a key problem for cloud infrastructure providers as hardware utilization directly impacts profit. Today, this mapping is commonly only performed when new VMs are created, but as VM workloads fluctuate and server availability varies, any initial mapping is bound to become suboptimal over time. We introduce a set of heuristic methods for continuous optimization of the VM-to-server mapping based on combinations of fundamental management actions, namely suspending and resuming physical machines, migrating VMs, and suspending and resuming VMs. By using these methods, cloud infrastructure providers can continuously optimize their server resources regardless of the predictability of the workload. To verify that our approach is applicable in real-world scenarios, we build a proof-of-concept datacenter management system that implements the proposed algorithms. The feasibility of our approach is evaluated through a combination of simulations and real experiments where our system provisions a workload of benchmark applications. Our results indicate that the proposed algorithms are feasible, that the combined management approach achieves the best results, and that the VM suspend and resume mechanism has the largest impact on provider profit.

Keywords
Cloud Computing, Scheduling, Heuristic Methods, Consolidation, VM Migration, Power Management
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125614 (URN)10.1109/CloudCom.2015.11 (DOI)000380458100051 ()978-1-4673-9560-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing Techonology and science, Vancouver, Canada, Nov 30-Dec 03, 2015.
Available from: 2016-10-05 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Kyriazis, D., Anagnostopoulos, V., Arcangeli, A., Gilbert, D., Kalogeras, D., Kat, R., . . . Varvarigou, T. (2015). High performance fault-tolerance for clouds. In: 2015 IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATION (ISCC), Larnaca, Cyprus, July 6-9, 2015: . Paper presented at ISCC 2015 (pp. 251-257). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance fault-tolerance for clouds
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATION (ISCC), Larnaca, Cyprus, July 6-9, 2015, IEEE , 2015, p. 251-257Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud computing and virtualized infrastructures are currently the baseline environments for the provision of services in different application domains. While the number of service consumers increasingly grows, service providers aim at exploiting infrastructures that enable non-disruptive service provisioning, thus minimizing or even eliminating downtime. Nonetheless, to achieve the latter current approaches are either application-specific or cost inefficient, requiring the use of dedicated hardware. In this paper we present the reference architecture of a fault-tolerance scheme, which not only enhances cloud environments with the aforementioned capabilities but also achieves high-performance as required by mission critical every day applications. To realize the proposed approach, a new paradigm for memory and I/O externalization and consolidation is introduced, while current implementation references are also provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keywords
cloud computing, fault-tolerance, high-performance, live-migration, resource consolidation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124693 (URN)000380481500040 ()
Conference
ISCC 2015
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-08-22 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P., Hudzia, B., Walsh, S., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2015). Principles and performance characteristics of algorithms for live VM migration. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 49(1), 142-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Principles and performance characteristics of algorithms for live VM migration
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2015 (English)In: ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 142-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since first demonstrated by Clark et al. in 2005, live migration of virtual machines has both become a standard feature of hypervisors and created an active field of research. However, the rich ongoing research in live migration focusmainly on performance improvements to well-known techniques, most of them being variations of the Clark approach. In order to advance live migration beyond incremental performance improvements, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of the live migration problem itself and its underlying principles.

To address this issue, this contribution takes a step back and investigates the essential characteristics of live migration. The paper identifies five fundamental properties of live migration and uses these to investigate, categorize, and compare three approaches to live migration: precopy, postcopy and hybrid. The evaluated algorithms include well-known techniques derived from that of Clark as well as novel RDMA in-kernel approaches. Our analysis of the fundamental properties of the algorithms is validated by a set of experiments. In these, we migrate virtual machines with large memory sizes hosting workloads with high page dirtying rates to expose differences and limitations of the different approaches. Finally, we provide guidelines for which approach to use in different scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015
Keywords
platform virtualization, virtual machine monitors, performance evaluation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100352 (URN)10.1145/2723872.2723894 (DOI)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 215605EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-03-02 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P., Li, W., Wadbro, E., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2014). Continuous Datacenter Consolidation. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous Datacenter Consolidation
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2014 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Efficient mapping of Virtual Machines (VMs) onto physical servers is a key problem for cloud infrastructure providers as hardware utilization directly im- pacts revenue. Today, this mapping is commonly only performed when new VMs are created, but as VM workloads fluctuate and server availability varies, any ini- tial mapping is bound to become suboptimal over time. We introduce a set of heuristic methods for continuous optimization of the VM-to-server mapping based on combina- tions of fundamental management actions, namely suspending and resuming physical machines, migrating VMs, and suspending and resuming VMs. Using these methods cloud infrastructure providers can continuously optimize their server resources regard- less of the predictability of the workload. To verify that our approach is applicable in real-world scenarios, we build a proof-of-concept datacenter management system that implements the proposed algorithms. The feasibility of our approach is evaluated through a combination of simulations and real experiments where our system provi- sions a workload of benchmark applications. Our results indicate that the proposed algorithms are feasible, that the combined management approach achieves the best results, and that the VM suspend and resume mechanism has the largest impact. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. p. 12
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 2014:08
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87385 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-31 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P. (2014). Dynamic Cloud Resource Management: Scheduling, Migration and Server Disaggregation. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Cloud Resource Management: Scheduling, Migration and Server Disaggregation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A key aspect of cloud computing is the promise of infinite, scalable resources, and that cloud services should scale up and down on demand. This thesis investigates methods for dynamic resource allocation and management of services in cloud datacenters, introducing new approaches as well as improvements to established technologies.Virtualization is a key technology for cloud computing as it allows several operating system instances to run on the same Physical Machine, PM, and cloud services normally consists of a number of Virtual Machines, VMs, that are hosted on PMs. In this thesis, a novel virtualization approach is presented. Instead of running each PM isolated, resources from multiple PMs in the datacenter are disaggregated and exposed to the VMs as pools of CPU, I/O and memory resources. VMs are provisioned by using the right amount of resources from each pool, thereby enabling both larger VMs than any single PM can host as well as VMs with tailor-made specifications for their application. Another important aspect of virtualization is live migration of VMs, which is the concept moving VMs between PMs without interruption in service. Live migration allows for better PM utilization and is also useful for administrative purposes. In the thesis, two improvements to the standard live migration algorithm are presented, delta compression and page transfer reordering. The improvements can reduce migration downtime, i.e., the time that the VM is unavailable, as well as the total migration time. Postcopy migration, where the VM is resumed on the destination before the memory content is transferred is also studied. Both userspace and in-kernel postcopy algorithms are evaluated in an in-depth study of live migration principles and performance.Efficient mapping of VMs onto PMs is a key problem for cloud providers as PM utilization directly impacts revenue. When services are accepted into a datacenter, a decision is made on which PM should host the service VMs. This thesis presents a general approach for service scheduling that allows for the same scheduling software to be used across multiple cloud architectures. A number of scheduling algorithms to optimize objectives like revenue or utilization are also studied. Finally, an approach for continuous datacenter consolidation is presented. As VM workloads fluctuate and server availability varies any initial mapping is bound to become suboptimal over time. The continuous datacenter consolidation approach adjusts this VM-to-PM mapping during operation based on combinations of management actions, like suspending/resuming PMs, live migrating VMs, and suspending/resuming VMs. Proof-of-concept software and a set of algorithms that allows cloud providers to continuously optimize their server resources are presented in the thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. p. 26
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 2014:09
Keywords
Cloud computing, virtualization, distributed infrastructure, live migration, scheduling
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87904 (URN)978-91-7601-038-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-05-06, Naturvetarhuset, N320, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P., Hudzia, B., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2014). Hecatonchire: Enabling Multi-Host Virtual Machines by Resource Aggregation and Pooling. Umeå: Department of Computing Science, Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hecatonchire: Enabling Multi-Host Virtual Machines by Resource Aggregation and Pooling
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vertical elasticity, or scale-up of individual virtual ma- chines is hard to perform in today’s cloud environments due to limitations in the amount of hardware resources available in single servers. We propose a novel approach that allows aggregation of memory, compute and I/O resources from multiple physical machines in resource pools which in turn are used to seamlessly provision vir- tual machines with the right amount of resources. We present our architecture and highlight key functionality such as transparent and resilient memory aggregation and fast live migration. Our approach is validated by a demonstration using benchmarks and a real-world big- data application. Performance results indicate a very low overhead in using aggregated memory as well as a sig- nificant improvement in live migration performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, 2014. p. 6
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 14.11
Keywords
Virtualization, Operating Systems, Disaggregation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87902 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Svärd, P., Hudzia, B., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2014). Hecatonchire: Towards Multi-Host Virtual Machines by Server Disaggregation. In: Luis Lopes (Ed.), EuroPar 2014: 20:th International Conference on Parallell Processing. Paper presented at EuroPar (pp. 519-529). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hecatonchire: Towards Multi-Host Virtual Machines by Server Disaggregation
2014 (English)In: EuroPar 2014: 20:th International Conference on Parallell Processing / [ed] Luis Lopes, Springer, 2014, p. 519-529Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Horizontal elasticity through scale-out is the current dogma for scaling cloud applications but requires a particular application architecture. Vertical elasticity is transparent to applications but less used as scale-up is limited by the size of a single physical server. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, server disaggregation, that aggregates memory, compute and I/O resources from multiple physical machines in resource pools. From these pools, virtual machines can be seamlessly provisioned with the right amount of resources for each application and more resources can be added to vertically scale a virtual machine as needed, regardless of the bound of any single physical machine. We present our proposed architecture and implement key functionality such as transparent memory scale-out and cloud management integration. Our approach is validated by a demonstration using benchmarks and a real-world big-data application and results indicate a low overhead in using memory scale-out in both test cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8806
Keywords
Virtualization, aggregation, scaling
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93362 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-14313-2_44 (DOI)000354785000044 ()978-3-319-14312-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-14313-2 (ISBN)
Conference
EuroPar
Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Li, W., Svärd, P., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2013). Cost-Optimal Cloud Service Placement under Dynamic Pricing Schemes. In: 6th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing: . Paper presented at the 6th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (pp. 187-194). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-Optimal Cloud Service Placement under Dynamic Pricing Schemes
2013 (English)In: 6th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 187-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Until now, most research on cloud service placement has focused on static pricing scenarios, where cloud providers offer fixed prices for their resources. However, with the recent trend of dynamic pricing of cloud resources, where the price of a compute resource can vary depending on the free capacity and load of the provider, new placement algorithms are needed. In this paper, we investigate service placement in dynamic pricing scenarios by evaluating a set of placement algorithms, tuned for dynamic pricing. The algorithms range from simple heuristics to combinatorial optimization solutions. The studied algorithms are evaluated by deploying a set of services across multiple providers. Finally, we analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithms considered. The evaluation suggests that exhaustive search based approach is good at finding optimal solutions for service placement under dynamic pricing schemes, but the execution times are usually long. In contrast, greedy approaches perform surprisingly well with fast execution times and acceptable solutions, and thus can be a suitable compromise considering the tradeoffs between quality of solution and execution time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2013
Keywords
Cloud Computing, Dynamic Pricing, Service Placement, Deployment Optimization
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80478 (URN)
Conference
the 6th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing
Funder
eSSENCE - An eScience CollaborationEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115
Available from: 2013-09-18 Created: 2013-09-18 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Li, W., Svärd, P., Tordsson, J. & Elmroth, E. (2012). A General Approach to Service Deployment in Cloud Environments. In: Cloud and Green Computing (CGC 2012): 2012 Second International Conference on. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Cloud and Green Computing, Xiangtan, 1-3 November 2012 (pp. 17-24). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A General Approach to Service Deployment in Cloud Environments
2012 (English)In: Cloud and Green Computing (CGC 2012): 2012 Second International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 17-24Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The cloud computing landscape has recently developed into a spectrum of cloud architectures, leading to a broad range of management tools for similar operations but specialized for certain deployment scenarios. This both hinders the efficient reuse of algorithmic innovations within cloud management operations and increases the heterogeneity between different management systems. Our overarching goal is to overcome these problems by developing tools general enough to support the full range of popular architectures. In this contribution, we analyze commonalities in recently proposed cloud models (private clouds, multi-clouds, bursted clouds, federated clouds, etc.), and demonstrate how a key management functionality - service deployment - can be uniformly performed in all of these by a carefully designed system. The design of our service deployment framework is validated through a demonstration of how it can be used to deploy services, perform bursting and brokering, as well as mediate a cloud federation in the context of the OPTIMIS Toolkit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2012
Keywords
Cloud Computing, Cloud Architecture, Service Deployment
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-79784 (URN)10.1109/CGC.2012.90 (DOI)978-0-7695-4864-7 (ISBN)978-1-4673-3027-5 Print (ISBN)
Conference
the 2nd International Conference on Cloud and Green Computing, Xiangtan, 1-3 November 2012
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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