umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Nitze, Florian
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Nitze, F., Sandström, R., Barzegar, H. R., Hu, G., Mazurkiewicz, M., Malolepszy, A., . . . Wågberg, T. (2014). Direct support mixture painting, using Pd(0) organo-metallic compounds - an easy and environmentally sound approach to combine decoration and electrode preparation for fuel cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2(48), 20973-20979
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct support mixture painting, using Pd(0) organo-metallic compounds - an easy and environmentally sound approach to combine decoration and electrode preparation for fuel cells
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 48, p. 20973-20979Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An inventive, fast and straight-forward approach for the direct preparation of fuel cell electrodes has been developed and tested. Our approach avoids long catalyst preparation and post-synthesis treatment. It reduces the use of chemicals and thereby concomitantly lowers the environmental impact and improves cost efficiency. It combines decoration of the support by palladium nanoparticles with electrode preparation through a simple one-step ink-painting and annealing process. Composites have been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Xray diffraction. Crystalline particles are well-attached and well-distributed on the support. Particles are of few nanometers in size and spherical for decorated Vulcan whereas they are larger and irregularly shaped for decorated helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs). Electrodes with a metal loading of 0.8 mg cm(-2) have been tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Both the Vulcan and the HCNF electrodes show a similar and high power output of up to 120 mW mg(-1). They also show similar performances in deactivation experiments conducted at 200 mA cm(-2) even when using only high purity grade formic acid. After deactivation the electrodes show no structural damage, making them superior to most commercial catalysts. The electrodes can be completely regenerated to initial activity by simple treatment with water. The easy regeneration process indicates that CO-adsorption on the fuel cell anode catalyst is not the main poisoning mechanism responsible for electrode degeneration.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98461 (URN)10.1039/c4ta04273e (DOI)000345531200070 ()2-s2.0-84911864610 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-01-22 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Hu, G., Nitze, F., Jia, X., Sharifi, T., Barzegar, H. R., Gracia-Espino, E. & Wågberg, T. (2014). Reduction free room temperature synthesis of a durable and efficient Pd/ordered mesoporous carbon composite electrocatalyst for alkaline direct alcohols fuel cell. RSC Advances, 4(2), 676-682
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction free room temperature synthesis of a durable and efficient Pd/ordered mesoporous carbon composite electrocatalyst for alkaline direct alcohols fuel cell
Show others...
2014 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 676-682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of easy and environmentally benign synthesis methods of efficient electrocatalysts for use in energy conversion applications motivates researchers all over the world. Here we report a novel and versatile method to synthesize well-dispersed palladium-functionalized ordered mesoporous carbons (Pd/OMCs) at room temperature without any reducing agent by one-pot mixing of tri(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium(0) (Pd2DBA3) and OMCs together in a common N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. The formation of Pd nanoparticles and their crystallization on the OMC is catalyzed by protons in the solution and can thus be controlled by the solution pH. The complete process and the as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by UV-spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (HTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrocatalytic property of the as-decorated material was examined with cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Pd/OMC composite shows up to two times higher electrocatalytic ability with a significantly better durability towards ethanol and methanol oxidation in alkaline media compared to commercial high surface area conductive carbon black Vulcan XC-72 decorated with equivalent Pd nanoparticles. Our described method provides new insight for the development of highly efficient carbon based nanocatalysts by simple and environmentally sound methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RSC Publishing, 2014
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81571 (URN)10.1039/C3RA42652A (DOI)000327849700024 ()
Available from: 2013-11-01 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Sharifi, T., Gracia-Espino, E., Barzegar, H. R., Jia, X., Nitze, F., Hu, G., . . . Wågberg, T. (2013). Formation of nitrogen-doped graphene nanoscrolls by adsorption of magnetic gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Nature Communications, 4, 2319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of nitrogen-doped graphene nanoscrolls by adsorption of magnetic gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4, p. 2319-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Graphene nanoscrolls are Archimedean-type spirals formed by rolling single-layer graphene sheets. Their unique structure makes them conceptually interesting and understanding their formation gives important information on the manipulation and characteristics of various carbon nanostructures. Here we report a 100% efficient process to transform nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide sheets into homogeneous nanoscrolls by decoration with magnetic gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Through a large number of control experiments, magnetic characterization of the decorated nanoparticles, and ab initio calculations, we conclude that the rolling is initiated by the strong adsorption of maghemite nanoparticles at nitrogen defects in the graphene lattice and their mutual magnetic interaction. The nanoscroll formation is fully reversible and upon removal of the maghemite nanoparticles, the nanoscrolls return to open sheets. Besides supplying information on the rolling mechanism of graphene nanoscrolls, our results also provide important information on the stabilization of iron oxide nanoparticles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2013
National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80760 (URN)10.1038/ncomms3319 (DOI)000323752300004 ()
Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Barzegar, H. R., Gracia-Espino, E., Sharifi, T., Nitze, F. & Wågberg, T. (2013). Nitrogen Doping Mechanism in Small Diameter Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact on Electronic Properties and Growth Selectivity. Paper presented at 2014/01/17. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(48), 25805-25816
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen Doping Mechanism in Small Diameter Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact on Electronic Properties and Growth Selectivity
Show others...
2013 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 48, p. 25805-25816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen doping in carbon nanostructures has attracted interest for more than a decade, and recent implementation of such structures in energy conversion systems has boosted the interest even more. Despite numerous studies, the structural conformation and stability of nitrogen functionalities in small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), and the impact of these functionalities on the electronic and mechanical properties of the SWNTs, are incomplete. Here we report a detailed study on nitrogen doping in SWNTs with diameters in the range of 0.8?1.0 nm, with well-defined chirality. We show that the introduction of nitrogen in the carbon framework significantly alters the stability of certain tubes, opening for the possibility to selectively grow nitrogen-doped SWNTs with certain chirality and diameter. At low nitrogen concentration, pyridinic functionalities are readily incorporated and the tubular structure is well pertained. At higher concentrations, pyrrolic functionalities are formed, which leads to significant structural deformation of the nanotubes and hence a stop in growth of crystalline SWNTs. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool to understand guest atom doping and electronic charge transfer in SWNTs. By correlating the influence of defined nitrogen functionalities on the electronic properties of SWNTs with different chirality, we make precise interpretation of experimental Raman data. We show that the previous interpretation of the double-resonance G?-peak in many aspects is wrong and instead can be well-correlated to the type of nitrogen doping of SWNTs originating from the p- or n-doping nature of the nitrogen incorporation. Our results are supported by experimental and theoretical data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013
National Category
Materials Chemistry Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84713 (URN)10.1021/jp409518m (DOI)000328101200069 ()
Conference
2014/01/17
Funder
Swedish Research Council, dnr-2010-3973
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Nitze, F. (2013). Synthesis and characterization of palladium based carbon nanostructure-composites and their clean-energy application. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of palladium based carbon nanostructure-composites and their clean-energy application
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbon nanostructures are a wide field with many applications. The use of carbon nanostructures as support in heterogeneous catalysis is a key development that led together with the use of nanoparticles to a significant cost reduction of catalysts. Catalysts designed in this way are widely applied in fuel cell technologies. For portable devices especially low temperature fuel cells are desirable with low hazards for the user. One technology which fulfills these requirements is the direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). DFAFC have many promising characteristics, such as high electromotive force and easy fuel handling. However, they still suffer from too low power output and lifetime for commercialization.

This thesis focusses on two main aspects: the synthesis of carbon nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their application as catalyst support. The materials are investigated by many different techniques ranging from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to fuel cell tests.

Different carbon nanostructures could be synthesized by catalytic CVD on palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were grown, selectively, dependent on temperature, using acetylene as carbon precursor. Especially HCNF raised further interest due to their unique structure. A growth model for HCNFs was developed based on an anisotropic extrusion model. The synthesis conditions for HCNFs were optimized until an almost 100 % purity with very high efficiency was obtained.

The unique helical but fiber-like structure made the material very interesting as support for heterogeneous catalysis. Several catalysts based on Pd nanoparticle decorated HCNFs were developed. The synthesis methods ranged from standard methods like the polyol method to phase-transfer methods. The catalysts showed very promising results for the electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol and formic acid. This makes them highly attractive for fuel cell applications. The catalysts were tested in DFAFC. The superiority of HCNF-based catalysts is attributed to the good attachment of nanoparticles to the defect-rich and easy to functionalize surface of HCNFs in combination with adequate film forming properties during electrode preparation.

Abstract [sv]

Nanostrukturerat kol är ett mycket brett fält med ett stort antal tillämpningar. Användning av kolnanostrukturer som support för heterogena katalysmaterial har tillsammans med utvecklingen av nanopartiklar lett till en avsevärd minskning av kostnaden för katalysatorer. Katalysatorer designade på detta sätt används frekvent i bränsleceller. För portabla tillämpningar är utvecklingen av säkra och miljövänliga lågtemperaturceller mycket viktig. En teknologi som uppfyller dessa kriterier är bränsleceller som drivs med myrsyra (DFAFC). Sådana bränsleceller har många önskvärda egenskaper, såsom en hög elektromotorisk kraft och en enkel hantering av bränslet. Trots dessa goda egenskaper har de också en del nackdelar som hindrar en full kommersialisering. De två mest problematiska är en för låg genererad effekt samt en för kort livslängd på katalysatorerna.

Denna avhandling fokuserar på två huvudpunkter som adresserar dessa problem; tillverkning och karaktärisering av kolnanostrukturer producerade med CVD, och deras tillämpningar som support för katalysatorer. Materialen karaktäriseras med en rad olika tekniker, allt från transmission-elektronmikroskopi till bränslecellstester.

Olika kolnanostrukturer har syntetiserats med katalytisk CVD på palladium (Pd) nanopartiklar. Produktionen av flerväggiga kolnanorör, kolfibrer och heliska kolnanofibrer har tillverkats med acetylen som kolkälla och genom att variera temperaturen kunde innehållet av olika typer av nanostrukturerat kol kontrolleras. Särskilt stort intresse har de heliska kolnanofibrerna rönt på grund av deras unika struktur. Vi beskriver en tillväxtmekanism baserad på en anisotrop diffusionsmodell. Genom att justera produktionsparametrarna visar vi att heliska kolnanofibrer kunde tillverkas med nära 100 %-ig renhet och hög effektivitet.

Den unika heliska och fiberlika strukturen är mycket intressant for tillämpningar som support för heterogena katalysatorer. Ett flertal kompositer för katalytiska tillämpningar har utvecklats baserade på heliska kolnanofibrer, dekorerade med heterogena katalysatorer genom en rad olika kemiska/fysikaliska tekniker. De syntetiserade materialen visar mycket goda katalytiska egenskaper för att oxidera metanol, etanol och myrsyra. Därigenom blir de mycket attraktiva för användning i bränsleceller. Vi korrelerar de goda katalytiska egenskaperna med en bra vidhäftning av nanopartiklarna på de heliska kolnanofibrerna defekter, deras goda ledningsförmåga, bra egenskaper för att förbereda elektroder, samt deras stora yta i förhållande till deras volym och vikt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2013. p. 66
Keywords
Carbon nanostructures, chemical vapour deposition, electro catalysts, transmission electron microscopy, direct formic acid fuel cells
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68852 (URN)digital version: 978-91-7459-632-8 (ISBN)printed version:978-91-7459-631-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-31, Naturvetarhuset, N450, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Jia, X., Hu, G., Nitze, F., Barzegar, H. R., Sharifi, T., Tai, C.-W. & Wågberg, T. (2013). Synthesis of Palladium/Helical Carbon Nanofiber Hybrid Nanostructures and Their Application for Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Detection. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 5(22), 12017-12022
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of Palladium/Helical Carbon Nanofiber Hybrid Nanostructures and Their Application for Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Detection
Show others...
2013 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 5, no 22, p. 12017-12022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on a novel sensing platform for H2O2 and glucose based on immobilization of palladium-helical carbon nanofiber (Pd-HCNF) hybrid nanostnictures and glucose oxidase (GOx) with Nafion on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). HCNFs were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process on a C-60-supported Pd catalyst. Pd-HCNF nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step reduction free method in dimethylformamide (DMF). The prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The Nafion/Pd-HCNF/GCE sensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic sensitivity toward H2O2 (315 mA M-1 cm(-2)) as probed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. We show that Pd-HCNF-modified electrodes significantly reduce the overpotential and enhance the electron transfer rate. A linear range from 5.0 mu M to 2.1 mM with a detection limit of 3.0 mu M (based on the S/N = 3) and good reproducibility were obtained. Furthermore, a sensing platform for glucose was prepared by immobilizing the Pd-HCNFs and glucose oxidase (GOx) with Nafion on a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good response to glucose with a wide linear range (0.06-6.0 mM) with a detection limit of 0.03 mM and a sensitivity of 13 mA M-1 cm(-2). We show that small size and homogeneous distribution of the Pd nanoparticles in combination with good conductivity and large surface area of the HCNFs lead to a H2O2 and glucose sensing platform that performs in the top range of the herein reported sensor platforms.

Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, glucose, helical carbon nanofibers, palladium, Nafion, nanoparticles, biosensors
National Category
Nano Technology Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85100 (URN)10.1021/am4037383 (DOI)000327812300072 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, dnr-2010 3973
Available from: 2014-01-28 Created: 2014-01-28 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Nitze, F., Barzegar, H. R. & Wagberg, T. (2012). Easy synthesis of Pd fullerene polymer structures from the molten state of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0). Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 249(12), 2588-2591
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Easy synthesis of Pd fullerene polymer structures from the molten state of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0)
2012 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 249, no 12, p. 2588-2591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pd fullerene composites were first synthesized and studied in the early 90s by for example Nagashima et al. In this study we present a novel and rapid approach to synthesize Pd fullerides based on direct reaction of C60 with Pd2dba3. We show that the Pd fullerene polymer phase forms at temperatures around the melting point of Pd2dba3 (150 degrees C) and that it proceeds upon further annealing while releasing dba. The synthesis reactions were studied in TGA/DSC. TEM revealed that the material easily collapses under the electron beam into nanoparticles. Under very low doses almost no particles can be found. Similarly, Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Pd fulleride polymers but also supported the collapse of the Pd fulleride phase when irradiated by high laser power. CVD experiments have been conducted on directly coated Si substrates showing similar results to previous reports, namely that Pd2C60 is an efficient catalysts for the growth of helical carbon nanofibers. Our study gives both insights into the formation of nanoparticles as well as the synthesis of C60 polymers. The method is also compatible with direct coating processes making it useful for a broad spectrum of CVD and catalysis applications. (C) 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Keywords
fullerenes, palladium, Pd fullerides, synthesis
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-64056 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201200084 (DOI)000312215300068 ()
Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Sharifi, T., Nitze, F., Barzegar, H. R., Tai, C.-W., Mazurkiewicz, M., Malolepszy, A., . . . Wågberg, T. (2012). Nitrogen doped multi walled carbon nanotubes produced by CVD-correlating XPS and Raman spectroscopy for the study of nitrogen inclusion. Carbon, 50(10), 3535-3541
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen doped multi walled carbon nanotubes produced by CVD-correlating XPS and Raman spectroscopy for the study of nitrogen inclusion
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 3535-3541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High purity aligned nitrogen doped multi walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method using pyridine and Fe/Co (2:1 volume ratio) as the single C/N precursor and catalyst material. The average diameter of the synthesized tubes ranges between 29 nm and 57 nm and the nitrogen content of the tubes reaches a maximum of 9.2 (at.)% nitrogen. The effect of nitrogen doping on the Raman scattering of doped tubes and its correlation with X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) was investigated. The analysis is based on the investigation of the I-D/I-G (integrated area ratio), other nitrogen characteristic Raman modes and the type of nitrogen inclusion interpreted from the N 1s electron bonding energies in XPS. At doping levels higher than 5% the nitrogen inclusion takes place through another mechanism than at low nitrogen doping levels. Most significant is that pyridinic defects are relatively readily incorporated at low nitrogen doping levels while at nitrogen content higher than 5% the major incorporation mechanism is dominated by pyridinic and pyrrolic defects on an equal basis. Our study gives further insight into nitrogen doping effects and the relation between type of nitrogen inclusion and nitrogen doping levels. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57740 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2012.03.022 (DOI)000305851700021 ()
Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Larsen, C., Barzegar, H. R., Nitze, F., Wågberg, T. & Edman, L. (2012). On the fabrication of crystalline C-60 nanorod transistors from solution. Nanotechnology, 23(34), 344015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the fabrication of crystalline C-60 nanorod transistors from solution
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, no 34, p. 344015-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible and high-aspect-ratio C-60 nanorods are synthesized using a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation process. As-grown nanorods are shown to exhibit a hexagonal close-packed single-crystal structure, with m-dichlorobenzene solvent molecules incorporated into the crystalline structure in a C-60:m-dichlorobenzene ratio of 3.2. An annealing step at 200 degrees C transforms the nanorods into a solvent-free face-centred-cubic polycrystalline structure. The nanorods are deposited onto field-effect transistor structures using two solvent-based techniques: drop-casting and dip-coating. We find that dip-coating deposition results in a preferred alignment of non-bundled nanorods and a satisfying transistor performance. The latter is quantified by the attainment of an electron mobility of 0.08 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and an on/off ratio of >10(4) for a single-crystal nanorod transistor, fabricated with a solution-based and low-temperature process that is compatible with flexible substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2012
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60080 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/23/34/344015 (DOI)000307812000016 ()
Available from: 2012-10-08 Created: 2012-10-01 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Hu, G., Nitze, F., Barzegar, H. R., Sharifi, T., Mikolajczuk, A., Tai, C.-W., . . . Wågberg, T. (2012). Palladium nanocrystals supported on helical carbon nanofibers for highly efficient electro-oxidation of formic acid, methanol and ethanol in alkaline electrolytes. Journal of Power Sources, 209, 236-242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palladium nanocrystals supported on helical carbon nanofibers for highly efficient electro-oxidation of formic acid, methanol and ethanol in alkaline electrolytes
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 209, p. 236-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the synthesis of palladium nanocrystals self-assembled on helical carbon nanofibers functionalized with benzyl mercaptan (Pd-S-HCNFs) and their electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of formic acid, methanol and ethanol. Helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were first functionalized with benzyl mercaptan based on the pi-pi interactions between phenyl rings and the graphitic surface of HCNFs. Palladium nano crystals (PdNC) were fixed on the surface of functionalized HCNF by Pd-S bonds in a simple self-assembly method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and fuel cell tests. CV characterization of the as-prepared materials shows a very high electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of formic acid, ethanol and methanol in strong alkaline electrolyte. In comparison to commercial catalyst Vulcan XC-72 decorated with Pd nanoparticles, the proposed Pd-S-HCNFs nano composite material shows oxidation currents for formic acid, ethanol and methanol at the Pd-S-HCNF-modified electrode that are higher than that at the Pd/XC-72 modified electrode with a factor of 2.0, 1.5, and 2.3, respectively. In a formic acid fuel cell the Pd-S-HCNF modified electrode yields equal power density as commercial Pd/XC-72 catalyst. Our results show that Pd-decorated helical carbon nanofibers with diameters around 40-60 nm have very high potential as active material in fuel cells, electrocatalysts and sensors. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.

Keywords
Helical carbon fibers, Electrocatalysts, Palladium, Nanoparticles, Electron microscopy, Fuel cells
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-56189 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.02.080 (DOI)000303698800031 ()
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, dnr-2010 3973
Note
Funding Agency: Magnus Bergvalls stiftelse, Kempestiftelsen, Wenner-Gren stiftelsen, Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education through NCN  2011/01/B/STS/03888, Ångpanneforeningen, Gustaf Richerts stiftelse.   Available from: 2012-06-12 Created: 2012-06-12 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications