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Franklin, O., Billing, O., Öhlund, D., Berglund, A., Herdenberg, C., Wang, W., . . . Sund, M. (2019). Novel prognostic markers within the CD44-stromal ligand network in pancreatic cancer. Journal of Pathology, 5(2), 130-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel prognostic markers within the CD44-stromal ligand network in pancreatic cancer
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dense stroma in pancreatic cancer tumours is rich in secreted extracellular matrix proteins and proteoglycans. Secreted hyaluronan, osteopontin and type IV collagen sustain oncogenic signalling by interactions with CD44s and its variant isoform CD44v6 on cancer cell membranes. Although well established in animal and in vitro models, this oncogenic CD44-stromal ligand network is less explored in human cancer. Here, we use a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray from 69 primary tumours and 37 metastatic lymph nodes and demonstrate that high tumour cell expression of CD44s and, surprisingly, low stromal deposition of osteopontin correlate with poor survival independent of established prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer. High stromal expression of hyaluronan was a universal trait of both primary tumours and metastatic lymph nodes. However, hyaluronan species of different molecular mass are known to function differently in pancreatic cancer biology and immunohistochemistry cannot distinguish between them. Using gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analysis, we uncover a shift towards high molecular mass hyaluronan in pancreatic cancer tissue compared to normal pancreas and at a transcriptional level, we find that hyaluronan synthesising HAS2 correlates positively with CD44. The resulting prediction that high molecular mass hyaluronan would then correlate with poor survival in pancreatic cancer was confirmed in serum samples, where we demonstrate that hyaluronan >27 kDa measured before surgery is an independent predictor of postoperative survival. Our findings confirm the prognostic value of CD44 tissue expression and highlight osteopontin tissue expression and serum high molecular mass hyaluronan as novel prognostic markers in pancreatic cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
CD44, biomarkers, hyaluronan, osteopontin, pancreatic cancer, type IV collagen
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154564 (URN)10.1002/cjp2.122 (DOI)000465218700006 ()30456933 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064472279 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Franklin, O., Jonsson, P., Billing, O., Lundberg, E., Öhlund, D., Nyström, H., . . . Sund, M. (2018). Plasma micro-RNA alterations appear late in pancreatic cancer. Annals of Surgery, 267(4), 775-781
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma micro-RNA alterations appear late in pancreatic cancer
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2018 (English)In: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140, Vol. 267, no 4, p. 775-781Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of this research was to study whether plasma microRNAs (miRNA) can be used for early detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) by analyzing prediagnostic plasma samples collected before a PC diagnosis. Background: PC has a poor prognosis due to late presenting symptoms and early metastasis. Circulating miRNAs are altered in PC at diagnosis but have not been evaluated in a prediagnostic setting. Methods: We first performed an initial screen using a panel of 372 miRNAs in a retrospective case-control cohort that included early-stage PC patients and healthy controls. Significantly altered miRNAs at diagnosis were then measured in an early detection case-control cohort wherein plasma samples in the cases are collected before a PC diagnosis. Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (Ca 19–9) levels were measured in all samples for comparison. Results: Our initial screen, including 23 stage I-II PC cases and 22 controls, revealed 15 candidate miRNAs that were differentially expressed in plasma samples at PC diagnosis. We combined all 15 miRNAs into a multivariate statistical model, which outperformed Ca 19–9 in receiver-operating characteristics analysis. However, none of the candidate miRNAs, individually or in combination, were significantly altered in prediagnostic plasma samples from 67 future PC patients compared with 132 matched controls. In comparison, Ca 19–9 levels were significantly higher in the cases at <5 years before diagnosis. Conclusion: Plasma miRNAs are altered in PC patients at diagnosis, but the candidate miRNAs found in this study appear late in the course of the disease and cannot be used for early detection of the disease.

Keywords
blood samples, early detection, micro-RNA, miRNA, pancreatic cancer
National Category
Clinical Laboratory Medicine Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127998 (URN)10.1097/SLA.0000000000002124 (DOI)000435846900046 ()28425921 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044257717 (Scopus ID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Sallinen, V. J., Le Large, T. T. Y., Tieftrunk, E., Galeev, S., Kovalenko, Z., Haugvik, S.-P., . . . Gaujoux, S. (2018). Prognosis of sporadic resected small (≤2 cm) nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a multi-institutional study. HPB, 20(3), 251-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prognosis of sporadic resected small (≤2 cm) nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a multi-institutional study
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2018 (English)In: HPB, ISSN 1365-182X, E-ISSN 1477-2574, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 251-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Malignant potential of small (<= 20 mm) nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (sNF-PNET) is difficult to predict and management remain controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the prognosis of sporadic nonmetastatic sNF-PNETs.

Methods: Patients were identified from databases of 16 centers. Outcomes and risk factors for recurrence were identified by uni-and multivariate analyses.

Results: sNF-PNET was resected in 210 patients, and 66% (n = 138) were asymptomatic. Median age was 60 years, median tumor size was 15 mm, parenchyma-sparing surgery was performed in 42%. Postoperative mortality was 0.5% (n = 1), severe morbidity rate was 14.3% (n = 30), and 14 of 132 patients (10.6%) with harvested lymph nodes had metastatic lymph nodes. Tumor size, presence of biliary or pancreatic duct dilatation, and WHO grade 2-3 were independently associated with recurrence. Patients with tumors sized <= 10 mm were disease free at last follow-up. The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates for patients with tumors sized 11-20 mm on preoperative imaging were 95.1%, 91.0%, and 87.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: In sNF-PNETs, the presence of biliary or pancreatic duct dilatation or WHO grade 2-3 advocate for surgical treatment. In the remaining patients, a wait-and-see policy might be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146452 (URN)10.1016/j.hpb.2017.08.034 (DOI)000427622300008 ()28988702 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Morin, E., Sjöberg, E., Tjomsland, V., Testini, C., Lindskog, C., Franklin, O., . . . Claesson-Welsh, L. (2018). VEGF receptor-2/neuropilin 1 trans-complex formation between endothelial and tumor cells is an independent predictor of pancreatic cancer survival. Journal of Pathology, 246(3), 311-322
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VEGF receptor-2/neuropilin 1 trans-complex formation between endothelial and tumor cells is an independent predictor of pancreatic cancer survival
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 246, no 3, p. 311-322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Unstable and dysfunctional tumor vasculature promotes cancer progression and spread. Signal transduction by the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is modulated by VEGFA-dependent complex formation with neuropilin 1 (NRP1). NRP1 expressed on tumor cells can form VEGFR2/NRP1 trans-complexes between tumor cells and endothelial cells which arrests VEGFR2 on the endothelial surface, thus interfering with productive VEGFR2 signaling. In mouse fibrosarcoma, VEGFR2/NRP1 trans-complexes correlated with reduced tumor vessel branching and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) strongly expressed NRP1 on both tumor cells and endothelial cells, in contrast to other common cancer forms. Using proximity ligation assay, VEGFR2/NRP1 trans-complexes were identified in human PDAC tumor tissue, and its presence was associated with reduced tumor vessel branching, reduced tumor cell proliferation, and improved patient survival after adjusting for other known survival predictors. We conclude that VEGFR2/NRP1 trans-complex formation is an independent predictor of PDAC patient survival. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
VEGF, neuropilin 1, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, trans-complex, branching
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152971 (URN)10.1002/path.5141 (DOI)000447161600007 ()30027561 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02375Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2016/578Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2015.0030Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2015.0275
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Franklin, O. (2016). Stromal components and micro-RNAs as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stromal components and micro-RNAs as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have the poorest 5-year survival rates of all cancer forms. It is difficult to diagnose at early disease stages, tumour relapse after surgery is common, and current chemotherapies are ineffective. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (Ca 19-9), the only clinically implemented PDAC biomarker, is insufficient for diagnostic and screening purposes.

PDAC tumours are characterised by a voluminous stroma that is rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagens, hyaluronan (HA) and matricellular proteins. These stromal components have been suggested to promote PDAC cell migration, proliferation, evasion of apoptosis and chemotherapy resistance. Those events are mediated via interactions with adhesion receptors, such as integrins and CD44 receptors expressed on cancer cell surfaces.

Micro-RNAs (miRNA) post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in health and disease. At the time of PDAC diagnosis, miRNA levels are altered both in plasma and tumour tissue. Before PDAC diagnosis, tissue miRNA levels are altered in precursor lesions, raising the possibility that plasma miRNAs might aid in early detection.

In this thesis, it is hypothesised that stromal components and miRNAs can serve as tissue or blood based biomarkers in PDAC. The aims are: (1) to characterise the expression of stromal components and their receptors in normal and cancerous tissue; (2) to find potential stroma-associated tissue and blood-based biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis estimates; (3) to determine the cellular effects of type IV collagen (Col IV) in PDAC; (4) to determine if plasma miRNAs that are altered in manifest PDAC can be used to diagnose PDAC earlier.

Methods The expression patterns of Col IV, Col IV-binding integrin subunits (α1, α2, β1), Endostatin, Osteopontin (OPN) and Tenascin C (TNC) were analysed in frozen PDAC and normal pancreatic tissue. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumours and lymph node metastases. The TMA was used to study the expression levels and associations with survival of the standard CD44 receptor (CD44s), its variant isoform 6 (CD44v6), HA, OPN and Col IV. Circulating levels of HA, Col IV, Endostatin, OPN and TNC were measured in PDAC patients and healthy individuals, and compared with conventional tumour markers (Ca 19-9, CEA, Ca 125 and TPS). The functional roles of Col IV were studied in PDAC cell lines by: (1) growth on different matrices (2) blocking Col IV binding integrin subunits, (3) blocking the Col IV domains 7s, CB3 and NC1, and (4) by down regulation of PDAC cell synthesis of Col IV using siRNA transfection. Plasma miRNAs alterations were screened for in samples from patients with manifest disease, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To find early miRNA alterations, levels of those miRNAs that were altered at diagnosis were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples.

Results High tissue expression of both the standard CD44 receptor (CD44s) and its variant isoform CD44v6 as well as low expression of stromal OPN were associated with poor survival. In addition, high CD44s and low OPN predicted poor survival independent of established prognostic factors.

Circulating Col IV, Endostatin, OPN, TNC and HA were increased in preoperative samples from PDAC patients. Preoperatively, higher levels of serum-HA and plasma-Endostatin were associated with shorter survival. Postoperatively, higher levels of Col IV, Endostatin and OPN were associated with shorter survival. On the contrary, only one of the conventional tumour markers was associated with survival (Ca 125).

Col IV stimulated PDAC cell proliferation and migration and inhibited apoptosis in vitro, dependent on the collagenous domain (CB3) of Col IV and the Col IV binding integrin subunit β1. Reduced endogenous Col IV synthesis inhibited these effects, suggesting that PDAC cells synthesise Col IV to stimulate tumour-promoting events via a newly discovered autocrine loop.

15 miRNAs were altered in early stage PDAC patients and the combination of these markers outperformed Ca 19-9 in discriminating patients from healthy individuals. However, none of the miRNAs were altered in prediagnostic samples, suggesting that plasma miRNA alterations appear late in the disease course.

Conclusions Up regulated stromal components in PDAC tumours are detectable in blood samples and are potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in PDAC. High circulating levels of Col IV, Endostatin, OPN and HA predict poor survival, as well as high expression of CD44s and CD44v6 and low expression of OPN in tumour tissue. PDAC cells synthesise Col IV, which forms BM-like structures close to cancer cells and promote tumour progression in vitro via an autocrine loop. Several plasma-miRNAs are altered in PDAC, but are not useful for early discovery. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. p. 64
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1833
Keywords
Pancreatic cancer, stroma, basement membrane, tumour markers, type IV collagen, endostatin, osteopontin, tenascin c, hyaluronan, CD44, micro-RNA
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128000 (URN)978-91-7601-454-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Hörsal B, målpunkt A, 9 trappor, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Kempe FoundationsSwedish Society of MedicineSwedish Cancer Society
Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Franklin, O., Öhlund, D., Lundin, C., Öman, M., Naredi, P., Wang, W. & Sund, M. (2015). Combining conventional and stroma-derived tumour markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biomarkers, 15(1), 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining conventional and stroma-derived tumour markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
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2015 (English)In: Cancer Biomarkers, ISSN 1574-0153, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: A lack of disease-specific symptoms and good tumour markers makes early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) challenging. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the tissue expression and circulating levels of four stroma-derived substances (type IV collagen, endostatin/type XVIII collagen, osteopontin and tenascin C) and four conventional tumour markers (CA 19-9, TPS, CEA and Ca 125) in a PDAC cohort.

METHODS: Tissue expression of markers in normal pancreas and PDAC tissue was analysed with immunofluorescence. Plasma concentrations of markers were measured before and after surgery. Patients with non-malignant disorders served as controls.

RESULTS: The conventional and stromal substances were expressed in the cancer cell compartment and the stroma, respectively. Although most patients had increased levels of many markers before surgery, 2/12 (17%) of patients had normal levels of Ca 19-9 at this stage. High preoperative endostatin/type XVIII collagen, and postoperative type IV collagen was associated with short survival. Neither the pre-nor postoperative levels of TPS, Ca 125 or CA 19-9 were associated to survival.

CONCLUSIONS: PDAC is characterized by an abundant stroma. These initial observations indicate that the stroma can be a source of PDAC tumour markers that are found in different compartments of the cancer, thus reflecting different aspects of tumour biology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2015
Keywords
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), tumour markers, stroma, type IV collagen, type XVIII llagen, endostatin, osteopontin, tenascin C, TPS, Ca 125, Ca 19-9, CEA
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97877 (URN)10.3233/CBM-140430 (DOI)000346079800001 ()
Available from: 2015-01-16 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, D., Franklin, O., Lundberg, E., Lundin, C. & Sund, M. (2013). Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop. BMC Cancer, 13, Article ID 154.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop
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2013 (English)In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 13, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the cellular effects of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells were characterized.

Methods: The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule.

Results: We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis.

Conclusion: We show that type IV collagen provides essential cell survival signals to the pancreatic cancer cells through an autocrine loop.

Keywords
Type IV collagen, Pancreatic cancer, Basement membrane, Integrin receptors, Autocrine loop
National Category
Surgery Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-71100 (URN)10.1186/1471-2407-13-154 (DOI)000317397700001 ()
Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Franklin, O., Billing, O., Öhlund, D., Berglund, A., Wang, W., Hellman, U. & Sund, M.CD44 receptors and stromal CD44 ligands as prognostic markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CD44 receptors and stromal CD44 ligands as prognostic markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127997 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3777-6887

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