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Kardell, Örjan
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Carlquist, J. & Kardell, Ö. (2019). Indulgences, wooden sculptures and vaulting: The economy of the parish church in Sweden 1430-1519. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(2), 193-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indulgences, wooden sculptures and vaulting: The economy of the parish church in Sweden 1430-1519
2019 (English)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 193-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish medievalists have presented two theories to explain how the investments in vaulting, murals and wooden sculptures in parish churches were made possible from the 1430s and onwards. Everyone agrees that the boom in construction activity is the first discernible sign of recovery after the economic set-back that the Black Death (1350) and recurring outbursts of plague in the following century brought on the country. Primary source material is scant. Only seven parish churches have left us records of their economic activity. One theory posits that the process of vaulting and church decoration was driven chiefly by donations from the nobility. The second theory relies heavily on the fact that land rent and land prices plummeted immediately after the Black Death and remained low. From the middle of the 15th century even freeholders enjoyed considerably reduced tax rates. This development left a bigger share of the agricultural surplus in the hands of the peasant community, who spent part of it on their parish churches. By creating a full picture of church land transactions (cathedrals, monasteries and parish churches), comparing the level of donations of land to the church with the level of business (buying, selling, exchanging) this study reveals that the parish church had a hard time attracting donors; their share was only five per cent of the total amount of donations 1430-1519. A special investigation was made of parish churches where vaulting had been carried out and supplied with an antiquarian description, which were scrutinised for traces of noble presence, chiefly coats of arms, which could suggest that local nobility had been involved in reconstruction or decoration of church premises. Only one fifth of the churches showed such signs of noble presence. In a third investigation, indulgences issued for parish churches were analysed as a new factor. International research has pointed out that the issuing of such indulgences had a practical economic intent as well as a celestial purpose: to offer a perpetual source of income for the church's building fund, the fabrica. Seven per cent of the estimated total number of parish churches - 103 of a total of 1500 - were issued such letters. The overall evidence therefore favours the second theory, with the input from the nobility seriously down-played but still present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2019
Keywords
Late medieval Sweden, parish churches, vaulting, church decoration, indulgences, donations, land transactions
National Category
Religious Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161614 (URN)000472591800002 ()
Note

[Plenaravlat, kultföremål och valvslagning: Sockenkyrkans ekonomi i Sverige 1430–1519]

Artikeln tillgänglig på nätet sex månader efter utgivning.

Available from: 2019-07-12 Created: 2019-07-12 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Kardell, Ö. & Bishon, K. (2014). Mångbruk i skogen är ingen ny idé. In: Erland Mårald, Christer Nordlund (Ed.), Idéer och värderingar: Rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 (pp. 30-34). Umeå: SLU, Future Forests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mångbruk i skogen är ingen ny idé
2014 (Swedish)In: Idéer och värderingar: Rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald, Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, p. 30-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: SLU, Future Forests, 2014
Series
Future Forests rapportserie ; 2014:3
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163436 (URN)978-91-576-9264-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Sténs, A. & Kardell, Ö. (2014). Oenigheten består om skogsgödsling. In: Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund (Ed.), Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 (pp. 26-27). Umeå: SLU, Future Forests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oenigheten består om skogsgödsling
2014 (Swedish)In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 2p. 26-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: SLU, Future Forests, 2014. p. 2
Series
Future Forests rapportserie ; 2014:3
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107511 (URN)978-91-576-9264-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Sténs, A. & Kardell, Ö. (2014). Skogsdödens "uppgång och fall": vad har vi lärt oss?. In: Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund (Ed.), Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 (pp. 22-25). Umeå: SLU, Future Forests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skogsdödens "uppgång och fall": vad har vi lärt oss?
2014 (Swedish)In: Idéer och värderingar: rapport från Future Forests 2009-2012 / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: SLU, Future Forests , 2014, , p. 4p. 22-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: SLU, Future Forests, 2014. p. 4
Series
Future Forests rapportserie ; 2014:3
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
History; History; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107508 (URN)978-91-576-9264-1 (ISBN)
Projects
Future Forests
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Kardell, Ö. & Dahlström, A. (2014). Wolves in the Early Nineteenth-Century County of Jönköping, Sweden. In: Sarah Johnson (Ed.), Animals: (pp. 185-214). Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wolves in the Early Nineteenth-Century County of Jönköping, Sweden
2014 (English)In: Animals / [ed] Sarah Johnson, Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press , 2014, p. 185-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 2014
Series
Themes in Environmental History ; 4
Keywords
historical wolf territories, wolf bounties, human-wolf interaction, nineteenth century Sweden, wolf management
National Category
History and Archaeology
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96266 (URN)978-1-874267-80-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Kardell, Ö. & Dahlström, A. (2013). Wolves in the early nineteenth-century county of Jönköping, Sweden. Environment and History, 19(3), 339-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wolves in the early nineteenth-century county of Jönköping, Sweden
2013 (English)In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 339-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden there has been a vigorous debate concerning management of the wolf (Canis lupus) ever since 1983, when the species was naturally re-established in the country by long-distance dispersal. The contradictory interests are due to a commitment by Naturvårdsverket, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, to protect the wolf, while at the same time wolves arouse fear and hatred among many members of the public because they attack hunting dogs and kill game and livestock. The wolf is expected to increase in numbers and spread over most of Sweden. We argue that modern wolf management would benefit from a historical perspective and our study draws on data from a time when wolves, livestock and people depending on their herds were far more numerous than today. We also discuss aspects of available wolf food supply and territorial size in the early nineteenth century county of Jönköping, Sweden. This is possible by combining hitherto undetected source material on wolves, with a high geographical resolution, with the insights of modern wildlife research. Our main conclusions are that historic wolf territories were in all probability larger than current territories. This was due to a scarcity of large prey, especially during the winter months when livestock were stabled. Past herding practices seem, to a very large extent, to have kept predation on livestock at nearly negligible levels compared to total livestock numbers. This is a significant finding that should be of interest to those concerned with present day wolf management. We also discuss the potential for the future re-establishment of wolves in the studied area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Isle of Harris: White Horse Press, 2013
Keywords
historical wolf territories, wolf bounties, human-wolf interaction, nineteenth century Sweden, wolf management
National Category
History Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52524 (URN)10.3197/096734013X13690716950145 (DOI)000322049900005 ()
Available from: 2012-02-23 Created: 2012-02-23 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Kardell, Ö. (2012). Cows and Forests: Swedish Environmental History. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 43(2), 275-287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cows and Forests: Swedish Environmental History
2012 (English)In: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, ISSN 0022-1953, E-ISSN 1530-9169, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 275-287Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden became a modern country only in the twentieth century. A major shift in silvicultural practices, plus an emphasis on dairy production, contributed to this national transformation at a time when, paradoxically, rural Sweden was being denuded of people and agriculturally and pastorally driven pursuits were replaced by urban-based industries and services. The introduction of cheap oil and of improvements in agricultural technologies and strategies had more to do with the development of forestry in Sweden during the twentieth century than any of forestry's own achievements did during the same period. The southern third of Sweden benefited more from these innovations than did the two northernmost thirds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MIT Press, 2012
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-59711 (URN)10.1162/JINH_a_00382 (DOI)000306970300004 ()
Available from: 2012-10-31 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, A., Kardell, Ö. & Nordlund, C. (2011). Intensive Forestry as Progress or Decay?: An Analysis of the Debate about Forest Fertilization in Sweden, 1960–2010. Forests, 2(1), 112-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intensive Forestry as Progress or Decay?: An Analysis of the Debate about Forest Fertilization in Sweden, 1960–2010
2011 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 112-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the mid-1960s, fertilization (with nitrogen) had a breakthrough as a promising forest management method in Swedish company owned forests. The activity grew and peaked during the 1970s but then lost ground and stabilized at a low level in the 1990s and early 2000s. Over the last five years, however, interest in fertilizing Swedish forests has increased again. In this article both the forestry industry’s, and the environmental movement’s, attitudes toward forest fertilization over time are investigated. Furthermore, conflicting persistent ideas about nature and future, i.e., “figures of thought”, within interest groups, representing forestry and the environmental movement respectively, are identified and analyzed in relation to the debate on fertilization. The analysis reveals mainly three figures of thought that have influenced this debate during the period, “the idea of progress”, “the idea of decay” and “the idea of the great chain of being”. The study thus sheds light on how the relationship between forestry and the environmental movement has evolved from the 1960s until today and uncovers thought patterns that have stood, and continue to stand, in opposition to one another.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI Publishing, 2011
Keywords
Swedish forestry, forest fertilization, environmental history, forest history, environmental debate, discourse analysis, figures of thought
National Category
History History of Ideas History History of Technology
Research subject
History; History Of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43648 (URN)10.3390/f2010112 (DOI)
Projects
Future Forests
Available from: 2011-05-05 Created: 2011-05-05 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, A., Kardell, Ö. & Nordlund, C. (2011). Intensive forestry as progress or decay?: An analysis of the debate about forest fertilization in Sweden, 1960-2010. Forests, 2(1), 112-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intensive forestry as progress or decay?: An analysis of the debate about forest fertilization in Sweden, 1960-2010
2011 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 112-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the mid-1960s, fertilization (with nitrogen) had a breakthrough as a promising forest management method in Swedish company owned forests. The activity grew and peaked during the 1970s but then lost ground and stabilized at a low level in the 1990s and early 2000s. Over the last five years, however, interest in fertilizing Swedish forests has increased again. In this article both the forestry industry’s, and the environmental movement’s, attitudes toward forest fertilization over time are investigated. Furthermore, conflicting persistent ideas about nature and future, i.e., “figures of thought”, within interest groups, representing forestry and the environmental movement respectively, are identified and analyzed in relation to the debate on fertilization. The analysis reveals mainly three figures of thought that have influenced this debate during the period, “the idea of progress”, “the idea of decay” and “the idea of the great chain of being”. The study thus sheds light on how the relationship between forestry and the environmental movement has evolved from the 1960s until today and uncovers thought patterns that have stood, and continue to stand, in opposition to one another.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
http://www.mpdi.com/1999-4907/2/1/112/, 2011
Keywords
Swedish forestry, forest fertilization, environmental history, forest history, environmental debate; discourse analysis, figures of thought
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-52523 (URN)10.3390/f2010112 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-02-23 Created: 2012-02-23 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Kardell, Ö. (2010). Arkivens bild av skogen som resurs under 1650-1950: en handledning. In: Håkan Tunón, Anna Dahlström (Ed.), Nycklar till kunskap: om människans bruk av naturen (pp. 73-86). Stockholm/Uppsala: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien/Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arkivens bild av skogen som resurs under 1650-1950: en handledning
2010 (Swedish)In: Nycklar till kunskap: om människans bruk av naturen / [ed] Håkan Tunón, Anna Dahlström, Stockholm/Uppsala: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien/Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald , 2010, p. 73-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm/Uppsala: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien/Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald, 2010
Series
SOLMED/CBM:s skriftserie, ISSN 1402-0386/1403-6568 ; 48/34
Keywords
skogshistoria, agrarhistoria
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34802 (URN)978-91-85205-93-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-06-18 Created: 2010-06-18 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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