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Johansson, Frank
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Publications (10 of 44) Show all publications
Nilsson-Örtman, V., Stoks, R. & Johansson, F. (2014). Competitive interactions modify the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates. Ecology, 95(5), 1394-1406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitive interactions modify the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates
2014 (English)In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1394-1406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual growth rates and survival are major determinants of individual fitness, population size structure, and community dynamics. The relationships between growth rate, survival, and temperature may thus be important for predicting biological responses to climate change. Although it is well known that growth rates and survival are affected by competition and predation in addition to temperature, the combined effect of these factors on growth rates, survival, and size structure has rarely been investigated simultaneously in the same ecological system. To address this question, we conducted experiments on the larvae of two species of damselflies and determined the temperature dependence of growth rate, survival, and cohort size structure under three scenarios of increasing ecological complexity: no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition. In one species, the relationship between growth rate and temperature became steeper in the presence of competitors, whereas that of survival remained unchanged. In the other species, the relationship between growth rate and temperature was unaffected by competitive interactions, but survival was greatly reduced at high temperatures in the presence of interspecific competitors. The combined effect of competitive interactions and temperature on cohort size structure differed from the effects of these factors in isolation. Together, these findings suggest that it will be challenging to scale up information from single-species laboratory studies to the population and community level.

Keywords
activation energy, Arrhenius equation, cannibalism, Coenagrion, damselflies, exploitation competition, interference competition, intraguild predation, microcosm experiment, size structure, thermal performance
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90858 (URN)10.1890/13-0875.1 (DOI)000336740500028 ()
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form, with the title "Competition modifies the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates".

Available from: 2014-07-17 Created: 2014-07-01 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Johansson, H., Stoks, R., Nilsson-Örtman, V., Ingvarsson, P. & Johansson, F. (2013). Large-scale patterns in genetic variation, gene flow and differentiation in five species of European Coenagrionid damselfly provide mixed support for the central-marginal hypothesis. Ecography, 36(6), 744-755
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale patterns in genetic variation, gene flow and differentiation in five species of European Coenagrionid damselfly provide mixed support for the central-marginal hypothesis
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2013 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 744-755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, an increased effort has been directed towards understanding the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations, particularly at central and marginal areas of a species' distribution. Much of this research is centred on the central-marginal hypothesis, which posits that populations at range margins are sparse, small and genetically diminished compared to those at the centre of a species' distribution range. We tested predictions derived from the central-marginal hypothesis for the distribution of genetic variation and population differentiation in five European Coenagrionid damselfly species. We screened genetic variation (microsatellites) in populations sampled in the centre and margins of the species' latitudinal ranges, assessed genetic diversity (HS) in the populations and the distribution of this genetic diversity between populations (FST). We further assessed genetic substructure and migration with Bayesian assignment methods, and tested for significant associations between genetic substructure and bioclimatic and spatial (altitude and latitude) variables, using general linearized models. We found no general adherence to the central-marginal hypothesis; instead we found that other factors such as historical or current ecological factors often better explain the patterns uncovered. This was illustrated in Coenagrion mercuriale whose colonisation history and behaviour most likely led to the observation of a high genetic diversity in the south and lower genetic diversity with increasing latitude, and in C. armatum and C. pulchellum whose patterns of low genetic diversity coupled with the weakest genetic differentiation at one of their range margins suggested, respectively, possible range shifts and recent, strong selection pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
Keywords
environmental factors, microsatellite loci, range expansion, populations, odonata, evolutionary, dispersal, abundance, G(ST), perspectives
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-74502 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.00064.x (DOI)000319290600011 ()
Available from: 2013-07-02 Created: 2013-07-01 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Nilsson-Örtman, V., Stoks, R., De Block, M., Johansson, H. & Johansson, F. (2013). Latitudinally structured variation in the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates. Ecology Letters, 16(1), 64-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitudinally structured variation in the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates
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2013 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Metabolic Theory of Ecology predicts that the slope of the rate–temperature relationship, E, remains consistent across traits and organisms, acting as a major determinant of large-scale ecological patterns. Although E has recently been shown to vary systematically, we have a poor understanding of its ecological significance. To address this question, we conducted a common-garden experiment involving six damselfly species differing in distribution, estimating E at the level of full-sib families. Each species was sampled throughout its latitudinal range, allowing us to characterise variation in E along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We show that E differs among populations and increases with latitude. E was right-skewness across species, but this was largely an artefact of the latitudinal trend. Increased seasonality towards higher latitude may contribute to the latitudinal trend in E. We conclude that E should be seen as a trait involved in local adaptation.

Keywords
environmental variation, growth rate, metabolic theory of ecology, thermal dependence, universal temperature dependence
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-62267 (URN)10.1111/ele.12013 (DOI)000312301300008 ()23050790 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Sniegula, S., Johansson, F. & Nilsson-Örtman, V. (2012). Differentiation in developmental rate across geographic regions: a photoperiod driven latitude compensating mechanism?. Oikos, 121(7), 1073-1082
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differentiation in developmental rate across geographic regions: a photoperiod driven latitude compensating mechanism?
2012 (English)In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 121, no 7, p. 1073-1082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in growth rates along latitudinal gradients may benefit our understanding of latitudinal compensating mechanisms in life history patterns. Here we explore latitudinal compensatory growth mechanisms with respect to photoperiod in northern and southern populations of two damselfly species, Coenagrion puella and C. pulchellum. In addition we compared size of field-collected adults from southern and northern populations. Eggs from females in copulating tandems were collected at two or three localities for each species in each geographic region. Eggs were transported to the laboratory and the experiment started when the eggs hatched. The role of photoperiod on the expression of larval growth rate was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Both species had lower growth rate when reared in the northern photoperiod, which is counter to expectations if species use photoperiodic cues to trigger compensatory growth. Instead, both species displayed countergradient variation in growth rates, which probably enable northern populations to compensate for the shorter growth season in the north. The smaller size of field-collected adults from northern populations also supports the view that these species compensate for the shorter growth season by investing in growth and development but accomplish this at the expense of decreased final size.

National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57434 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20015.x (DOI)000305614300009 ()
Available from: 2012-07-23 Created: 2012-07-23 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Lind, M. I., Ingvarsson, P. K. & Bokma, F. (2012). Evolution of the G-matrix in life history traits in the common frog during a recent colonisation of an island system. Evolutionary Ecology, 26(4), 863-878
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of the G-matrix in life history traits in the common frog during a recent colonisation of an island system
2012 (English)In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 863-878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of genetic correlations between traits that ostensibly channel the path of evolution away from the direction of natural selection require information on key aspects such as ancestral phenotypes, the duration of adaptive evolution, the direction of natural selection, and genetic covariances. In this study we provide such information in a frog population system. We studied adaptation in life history traits to pool drying in frog populations on islands of known age, which have been colonized from a mainland population. The island populations show strong local adaptation in development time and size. We found that the first eigenvector of the variance-covariance matrix (g (max)) had changed between ancestral mainland populations and newly established island populations. Interestingly, there was no divergence in g (max) among island populations that differed in their local adaptation in development time and size. Thus, a major change in the genetic covariance of life-history traits occurred in the colonization of the island system, but subsequent local adaptation in development time took place despite the constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57140 (URN)10.1007/s10682-011-9542-2 (DOI)000305218900007 ()
Available from: 2012-07-09 Created: 2012-07-09 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Nilsson-Örtman, V., Stoks, R., De Block, M. & Johansson, F. (2012). Generalists and specialists along a latitudinal transect: patterns of thermal adaptation in six species of damselflies. Ecology, 93(6), 1340-1352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalists and specialists along a latitudinal transect: patterns of thermal adaptation in six species of damselflies
2012 (English)In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 1340-1352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tropical organisms colonizing temperate environments face reduced average temperatures and dramatic thermal fluctuations. Theoretical models postulate that thermal specialization should be favored either when little environmental variation is experienced within generations or when among-generation variation is small relative to within-generation variation. To test these predictions, we studied six temperate species of damselflies differing in latitudinal distribution. We developed a computer model simulating how organisms experience environmental variation (accounting for diapause and voltinism) and performed a laboratory experiment assaying thermal sensitivities of growth rates. The computer model showed opposing latitudinal trends in among-and within-generation thermal variability: within-generation thermal variability decreased toward higher latitudes, whereas relative levels of among-generation thermal variability peaked at midlatitudes (where a shift in voltinism occurred). The growth experiment showed that low-latitude species were more thermally generalized than mid- and high-latitude species, supporting the prediction that generalists are favored under high levels of within-generation variation. Northern species had steeper, near-exponential reaction norms suggestive of thermal specialization. However, they had strikingly high thermal optima and grew very slowly over most of the thermal range they are expected to experience in the field. This observation is at present difficult to explain. These results highlight the importance of considering interactions between life history and environmental variation when deriving expectations of thermal adaptation.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57156 (URN)10.1890/11-1910.1 (DOI)000305296600012 ()
Available from: 2012-07-09 Created: 2012-07-09 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Sniegula, S., Nilsson-Örtman, V. & Johansson, F. (2012). Growth Pattern Responses to Photoperiod across Latitudes in a Northern Damselfly. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e46024
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth Pattern Responses to Photoperiod across Latitudes in a Northern Damselfly
2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 9, p. e46024-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Latitudinal clines in temperature and seasonality impose strong seasonal constraints on ectotherms. Studies of population differentiation in phenotypic plasticity of life history traits along latitudinal gradients are important for understanding how organisms have adapted to seasonal environments and predict how they respond to climate changes. Such studies have been scarce for species with a northern distribution. Methodology/Principle Finding: Larvae of the northern damselfly Coenagrion johanssoni originating from semivoltine central, partivoltine northern, and partivoltine northernmost Swedish populations were reared in the laboratory. To investigate whether larvae use photoperiodic cues to induce compensatory growth along this latitudinal gradient, larvae were reared under two different photoperiods corresponding to a northern and southern latitude. In addition, field adult size was assessed to test the strength of possible compensatory growth mechanisms under natural conditions and hatchling size was measured to test for maternal effects. We hypothesized that populations originating from lower latitudes would be more time constrained than high-latitude populations because they have a shorter life cycle. The results showed that low-latitude populations had higher growth rates in summer/fall. In general northern photoperiods induced higher growth rates, but this plastic response to photoperiod was strongest in the southernmost populations and negligible in the northernmost population. During spring, central populations grew faster under the southern rather than the northern photoperiod. On the other hand, northern and northernmost populations did not differ between each other and grew faster in the northern rather than in the southern photoperiod. Field sampled adults did not differ in size across the studied regions. Conclusion/Significance: We found a significant differentiation in growth rate across latitudes and latitudinal difference in growth rate response to photoperiod. Importantly, growth responses measured at a single larval developmental stage in one season may not always generalize to other developmental stages or seasons.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61192 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0046024 (DOI)000309392800131 ()
Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-11-07 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Outomuro, D., Bokma, F. & Johansson, F. (2012). Hind Wing Shape Evolves Faster than Front Wing Shape in Calopteryx Damselflies. Evolutionary biology, 39(1), 116-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hind Wing Shape Evolves Faster than Front Wing Shape in Calopteryx Damselflies
2012 (English)In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wing shape has been shown in a variety of species to be influenced by natural and sexual selection. In damselflies, front- and hind wings can beat independently, and functional differentiation may occur. Males of Calopteryx damselflies show species-specific nuptial flights that differ in colour signalling with the hind wings. Therefore, hind wing shape and colour may evolve in concert to improve colour display, independent of the front wings. We predicted that male hind wing shape evolves faster than front wing shape, due to sexual selection. Females do not engage in sexual displays, so we predicted that females do not show differences in divergence between front- and hind wing shape. We analysed the non-allometric component of wing shape of five European Calopteryx taxa using geometric morphometrics. We found a higher evolutionary divergence of hind wing shape in both sexes. Indeed, we found no significant differences in rate of evolution between the sexes, despite clear sex-specific differences in wing shape. We suggest that evolution of hind wing shape in males is accelerated by sexual selection on pre-copulatory displays and that this acceleration is reflected in females due to genetic correlations that somehow link the rates of wing shape evolution in the two sexes, but not the wing shapes themselves.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-53251 (URN)10.1007/s11692-011-9145-4 (DOI)000300579700010 ()
Available from: 2012-03-23 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lind, M. I., Ingvarsson, P. K., Johansson, H., Hall, D. & Johansson, F. (2011). Gene flow and selection on phenotypic plasticity in an island system of rana temporaria. Evolution, 65(3), 684-697
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene flow and selection on phenotypic plasticity in an island system of rana temporaria
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2011 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 684-697Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gene flow is often considered to be one of the main factors that constrains local adaptation in a heterogeneous environment. However, gene flow may also lead to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. We investigated the effect of gene flow on local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in development time in island populations of the common frog Rana temporaria which breed in pools that differ in drying regimes. This was done by investigating associations between traits (measured in a common garden experiment) and selective factors (pool drying regimes and gene flow from other populations inhabiting different environments) by regression analyses and by comparing pairwise F(ST) values (obtained from microsatellite analyses) with pairwise Q(ST) values. We found that the degree of phenotypic plasticity was positively correlated with gene flow from other populations inhabiting different environments (among-island environmental heterogeneity), as well as with local environmental heterogeneity within each population. Furthermore, local adaptation, manifested in the correlation between development time and the degree of pool drying on the islands, appears to have been caused by divergent selection pressures. The local adaptation in development time and phenotypic plasticity is quite remarkable, because the populations are young (less than 300 generations) and substantial gene flow is present among islands.

Keywords
Gene flow;genetic drift;life-history evolution;local adaptation;natural selection;phenotypic plasticity
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40978 (URN)10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01122.x (DOI)20825480 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-03-15 Created: 2011-03-15 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Mobley, K. B., Lussetti, D., Johansson, F., Englund, G. & Bokma, F. (2011). Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations
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2011 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, p. 287-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5) or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3) that became isolated from the Baltic Sea (< 100 years before present, ybp). Inland populations are from freshwater lakes that became isolated from the Baltic approximately 10,000 ybp; either single species lakes without predators (n = 5), or lakes with a recent history of predation (n = 5) from stocking of salmonid predators (~50 ybp).

Results: Coastal populations showed little variation in 11 morphological traits and had longer spines per unit of body length than inland populations. Inland populations were larger, on average, and showed greater morphological variation than coastal populations. A principal component analysis (PCA) across all populations revealed two major morphological axes related to spine length (PC1, 47.7% variation) and body size (PC2, 32.9% variation). Analysis of PCA scores showed marked similarity in coastal (Baltic coast and coastal lake) populations. PCA scores indicate that inland populations with predators have higher within-group variance in spine length and lower within-group variance in body size than inland populations without predators. Estimates of within-group PST (a proxy for QST) from PCA scores are similar to estimates of FST for coastal lake populations but PST > FST for Baltic coast populations. PST > FST for PC1 and PC2 for inland predator and inland no predator populations, with the exception that PST < FST for body size in inland populations lacking predators.

Conclusions: Baltic coast and coastal lake populations show little morphological and genetic variation within and between groups suggesting that these populations experience similar ecological conditions and that time since isolation of coastal lakes has been insufficient to demonstrate divergent morphology in coastal lake populations. Inland populations, on the other hand, showed much greater morphological and genetic variation characteristic of long periods of isolation. Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size, suggesting systematic reduction in spine length. In contrast, inland populations with predators exhibit a wider range of spine lengths relative to body size suggesting that this trait is responding to local predation pressure differently among these populations. Taken together the results suggest that predation plays a role in shaping morphological variation among isolated inland populations. However, we cannot rule out that a causal relationship between predation versus other genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation not measured in this study exists, and this warrants further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2011
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-48597 (URN)10.1186/1471-2148-11-287 (DOI)21970590 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-10-25 Created: 2011-10-25 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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