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Klaus, M., Seekell, D. A., Lidberg, W. & Karlsson, J. (2019). Evaluations of Climate and Land Management Effects on Lake Carbon Cycling Need to Account Temporal Variability in CO2 Concentration. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33(3), 243-265
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluations of Climate and Land Management Effects on Lake Carbon Cycling Need to Account Temporal Variability in CO2 Concentration
2019 (English)In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 243-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in lakes vary strongly over time. This variability is rarely captured by environmental monitoring but is crucial for accurately assessing the magnitude of lake CO2 emissions. However, it is unknown to what extent temporal variability needs to be captured to understand important drivers of lake carbon cycling such as climate and land management. We used environmental monitoring data of Swedish forest lakes collected in autumn (n = 439) and throughout the whole open water season (n = 22) from a wet and a dry year to assess temporal variability in effects of climate and forestry on CO2 concentrations across lakes. Effects differed depending on the season and year sampled. According to cross-lake comparisons based on autumn data, CO2 concentrations increased with annual mean air temperature (dry year) or catchment forest productivity (wet year) but were not related to colored dissolved organic matter concentrations. In contrast, open water-season averaged CO2 concentrations were similar across temperature and productivity gradients but increased with colored dissolved organic matter. These contradictions resulted from scale mismatches in input data, lead to weak explanatory power (R-2 = 9-32%), and were consistent across published data from 79 temperate, boreal, and arctic lakes. In a global survey of 144 published studies, we identified a trade-off between temporal and spatial coverage of CO2 sampling. This trade-off clearly determines which conclusions are drawn from landscape-scale CO(2 )assessments. Accurate evaluations of the effects of climate and land management require spatially and temporally representative data that can be provided by emerging sensor technologies and forms of collaborative sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
Keywords
carbon cycling, lake, seasonality, sampling, greenhouse gas, structural equation modeling
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158600 (URN)10.1029/2018GB005979 (DOI)000464651600002 ()
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M., Geibrink, E., Hotchkiss, E. R. & Karlsson, J. (2019). Listening to air–water gas exchange in running waters [Letter to the editor]. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 17(7), 395-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Listening to air–water gas exchange in running waters
2019 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, ISSN 1541-5856, E-ISSN 1541-5856, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 395-414Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air–water gas exchange velocities (k) are critical components of many biogeochemical and ecological process studies in aquatic systems. However, their high spatiotemporal variability is difficult to capture with traditional methods, especially in turbulent flow. Here, we investigate the potential of sound spectral analysis to infer k in running waters, based on the rationale that both turbulence and entrained bubbles drive gas exchange and cause a characteristic sound. We explored the relationship between k and sound spectral properties using laboratory experiments and field observations under a wide range of turbulence and bubble conditions. We estimated k using flux chamber measurements of CO2 exchange and recorded sound above and below the water surface by microphones and hydrophones, respectively. We found a strong influence of turbulence and bubbles on sound pressure levels (SPLs) at octave bands of 31.5 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively. The difference in SPLs at these bands and background noise bands showed a linear correlation with k both in the laboratory (R2 = 0.93–0.99) and in the field (median R2 = 0.42–0.90). Underwater sound indices outperformed aerial sound indices in general, and indices based on hydraulic parameters in particular, in turbulent and bubbly surface flow. The results highlight the unique potential of acoustic techniques to predict k, isolate mechanisms, and improve the spatiotemporal coverage of k estimates in bubbly flow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2019
National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160885 (URN)10.1002/lom3.10321 (DOI)000475817700002 ()2-s2.0-85067657559 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Denfeld, B. A., Klaus, M., Laudon, H., Sponseller, R. A. & Karlsson, J. (2018). Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics in a Small Boreal Lake During Winter and Spring Melt Events. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 123(8), 2527-2540
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics in a Small Boreal Lake During Winter and Spring Melt Events
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 2527-2540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In seasonally ice‐covered lakes, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission at ice‐off can account for a significant fraction of the annual budget. Yet knowledge of the mechanisms controlling below lake‐ice carbon (C) dynamics and subsequent CO2 and CH4 emissions at ice‐off is limited. To understand the control of below ice C dynamics, and C emissions in spring, we measured spatial variation in CO2, CH4, and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon from ice‐on to ice‐off, in a small boreal lake during a winter with sporadic melting events. Winter melt events were associated with decreased surface water DOC in the forest‐dominated basin and increased surface water CH4 in the mire‐dominated basin. At the whole‐lake scale, CH4 accumulated below ice throughout the winter, whereas CO2 accumulation was greatest in early winter. Mass‐balance estimates suggest that, in addition to the CO2 and CH4 accumulated during winter, external inputs of CO2 and CH4 and internal processing during ice‐melt could represent significant sources of C gas emissions during ice‐off. Moreover, internal processing of CO2 and CH4 worked in opposition, with production of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 dominating at ice‐off. These findings have important implications for how small boreal lakes will respond to warmer winters in the future; increased winter melt events will likely increase external inputs below ice and thus alter the extent and timing of CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere at ice‐off.

Keywords
winter limnology, carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, methane emissions, ice‐covered lake
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152552 (URN)10.1029/2018JG004622 (DOI)000445731100016 ()2-s2.0-85052445907 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M., Geibrink, E., Jonsson, A., Bergström, A.-K., Bastviken, D., Laudon, H., . . . Karlsson, J. (2018). Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters unchanged after forest harvesting. Biogeosciences, 15(18), 5575-5594
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters unchanged after forest harvesting
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2018 (English)In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, Vol. 15, no 18, p. 5575-5594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forestry practices often result in an increased export of carbon and nitrogen to downstream aquatic systems. Although these losses affect the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of managed forests, it is unknown if they modify GHG emissions of recipient aquatic systems. To assess this question, air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were quantified for humic lakes and their inlet streams in four boreal catchments using a before-after control-impact experiment. Two catchments were treated with forest clear-cuts followed by site preparation (18 % and 44 % of the catchment area). GHG fluxes and hydrological and physicochemical water characteristics were measured at multiple locations in lakes and streams at high temporal resolution throughout the summer season over a 4-year period. Both lakes and streams evaded all GHGs. The treatment did not significantly change GHG fluxes in streams or lakes within 3 years after the treatment, despite significant increases of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in hillslope groundwater. Our results highlight that GHGs leaching from forest clear-cuts may be buffered in the riparian zone-stream continuum, likely acting as effective biogeochemical processors and wind shelters to prevent additional GHG evasion via downstream inland waters. These findings are representative of low productive forests located in relatively flat landscapes where forestry practices cause only a limited initial impact on catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Gesellschaft, 2018
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152400 (URN)10.5194/bg-15-5575-2018 (DOI)000445040900002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 210-2012-1461The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1240EU, European Research Council, 725546
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Berggren, M., Klaus, M., Selvam, B. P., Ström, L., Laudon, H., Jansson, M. & Karlsson, J. (2018). Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes. Biogeosciences, 15(2), 457-470
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes
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2018 (English)In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 457-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be removed, transformed, or added during water transit through lakes, resulting in changes in DOC composition and pigmentation (color). However, the process-based understanding of these changes is incomplete, especially for headwater lakes. We hypothesized that because heterotrophic bacteria preferentially consume noncolored DOC, while photochemical processing removes colored fractions, the overall changes in DOC color upon water passage through a lake depend on the relative importance of these two processes, accordingly. To test this hypothesis we combined laboratory experiments with field studies in nine boreal lakes, assessing both the relative importance of different DOC decay processes (biological or photochemical) and the loss of color during water transit time (WTT) through the lakes. We found that influence from photo-decay dominated changes in DOC quality in the epilimnia of relatively clear headwater lakes, resulting in systematic and selective net losses of colored DOC. However, in highly pigmented brown-water lakes (absorbance at 420 nm > 7 m(-1)) biological processes dominated, and there was no systematic relationship between color loss and WTT. Moreover, in situ data and dark experiments supported our hypothesis on the selective microbial removal of nonpigmented DOC, mainly of low molecular weight, leading to persistent water color in these highly colored lakes. Our study shows that brown headwater lakes may not conform to the commonly reported pattern of the selective removal of colored constituents in freshwaters, as DOC can show a sustained degree of pigmentation upon transit through these lakes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2018
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144829 (URN)10.5194/bg-15-457-2018 (DOI)000423346300001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M., Bergström, A.-K., Jonsson, A., Deininger, A., Geibrink, E. & Karlsson, J. (2018). Weak response of greenhouse gas emissions to whole lake N enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography, 63, S340-S353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weak response of greenhouse gas emissions to whole lake N enrichment
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2018 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, p. S340-S353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global warming and land use scenarios suggest increased 21st century nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems. Nitrogen affects in-lake processing and, potentially, atmospheric exchange of greenhouse gases, probably being most relevant in unproductive systems. Here, we test for the first time the effect of a whole-lake experimental increase (threefold) in external nitrate loads on the atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from N-limited unproductive boreal lakes. Nitrate enrichment effects were assessed within a paired Before/After-Control/Impact framework based on 2-hourly to biweekly surface-water sampling of dissolved gas concentrations, and monthly whole-lake inventory surveys, carried out over 4 yrs in six lakes. Nitrate enrichment did not affect gas exchange during summer stratification and whole-lake gas inventories during summer and winter stratification. This finding specifically emphasizes the modest role of internal carbon fixation for the CO2 dynamics of unproductive boreal lakes. A global synthesis of 52 published studies revealed a wide range of nutrient fertilization effects, both in systems similar to our experimental lakes, and other more productive systems. Effects depended mainly on the spatiotemporal scale of the study and became more pronounced when N enrichment was combined with phosphorous. Conclusively, although short-term and habitat-specific effects can occur, changes in N supply have only weak whole-ecosystem effects on greenhouse gas emissions from unproductive boreal lakes.

National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135002 (URN)10.1002/lno.10743 (DOI)000427077300023 ()
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M. (2017). Land use effects on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Land use effects on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic activities perturb the global carbon and nitrogen cycle with large implications for the earth’s climate. Land use activities deliver excess carbon and nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. In the boreal biome, this is mainly due to forestry and atmospheric deposition. Yet, impacts of these anthropogenically mediated inputs of carbon and nitrogen on the processing and emissions of greenhouse gases from recipient streams and lakes are largely unknown. Understanding the ecosystem-scale response of aquatic greenhouse gas cycling to land use activities is critical to better predict anthropogenic effects on the global climate system and design more efficient climate change mitigation measures.

This thesis assesses the effects of forest clearcutting and nitrate enrichment on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters. It also advances methods to quantify sources and sinks of these emissions. Short-term clearcut and nitrate enrichment effects were assessed using two whole-ecosystem experiments, carried out over four years in nine headwater catchments in boreal Sweden. In these experiments, I measured or modeled air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), combining concentration, ebullition and gas-transfer velocity measurements in groundwater, streams and lakes. By using Swedish national monitoring data, I also assessed broad-scale effects of forest clearcutting by relating CO2 concentrations in 439 forest lakes to the areal proportion of catchment forest clearcuts. To improve quantifications of CO2 sources and sinks in lakes, I analyzed time series of oxygen concentrations and water temperature in five lakes on conditions under which whole-lake metabolism estimates can be inferred from oxygen dynamics given the perturbing influence of atmospheric exchange, mixing and internal waves.

The experiments revealed that aquatic greenhouse gas emissions did not respond to nitrate addition or forest clearcutting. Importantly, riparian zones likely buffered clearcut-induced increases in groundwater CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Experimental results were confirmed by monitoring data showing no relationship between CO2 patterns across Swedish lakes and clearcut gradients. Yet, conclusions on internal vs. external CO2 controls largely depended on whether spatially or temporally resolved data was used. Partitioning CO2 sources and sinks in lakes using time series of oxygen was greatly challenged by physical transport and mixing processes.

Conclusively, ongoing land use activities in the boreal zone are unlikely to have major effect on headwater greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, system- and scale specific effects cannot be excluded. To reveal these effects, there is a large need of improved methods and design of monitoring programs that account for the large spatial and temporal variability in greenhouse gas dynamics and its controls by abiotic and biotic factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2017. p. 46
Keywords
greenhouse gas, boreal forest, carbon cycling, whole-ecosystem experiment, limnology, metabolism, forest clearcutting, nitrogen enrichment
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134767 (URN)978-91-7601-716-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-09, Lilla Hörsalen, KBC huset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-19 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Deininger, A., Faithfull, C. L., Karlsson, J., Klaus, M. & Bergström, A.-K. (2017). Pelagic food web response to whole lake N fertilization. Limnology and Oceanography, 62(4), 1498-1511
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pelagic food web response to whole lake N fertilization
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2017 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 1498-1511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic activities are increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) loadings to unproductive boreal lakes. In many of these lakes phytoplankton are N limited, consequently N fertilization may affect ecosystem productivity and consumer resource use. Here, we conducted whole lake inorganic N fertilization experiments with six small N limited unproductive boreal lakes (three control and three N enriched) in an area receiving low N deposition with one reference and two impact years. Our aim was to assess the effects of N fertilization on pelagic biomass production and consumer resource use. We found that phytoplankton primary production (PP) and biomass, and the PP: bacterioplankton production ratio increased after fertilization. As expected, the relative contribution of phytoplankton derived resources (autochthony) that supported the crustacean zooplankton community increased. Yet, the response in the consumer community was modest with autochthony only increasing in one of the three major zooplankton groups and with no effect on zooplankton biomass. In conclusion, our findings imply that newly available phytoplankton energy derived from N fertilization was not efficiently transferred up to zooplankton, indicating a mismatch between producer energy supply and consumer energy use with potential accumulation of phytoplankton biomass as the result.

Keywords
autochthony, basal production, boreal, dissolved organic carbon, limitation, nitrate, phytoplankton, zooplankton
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Limnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130332 (URN)10.1002/lno.10513 (DOI)000404993100013 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2010-4675
Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M., Becher, M. & Klaminder, J. (2013). Cryogenic Soil Activity along Bioclimatic Gradients in Northern Sweden: Insights from Eight Different Proxies. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 24(3), 210-223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cryogenic Soil Activity along Bioclimatic Gradients in Northern Sweden: Insights from Eight Different Proxies
2013 (English)In: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, ISSN 1045-6740, E-ISSN 1099-1530, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 210-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cryogenic soil activity caused by differential soil movements during freeze-thaw cycles is of fundamental importance for Arctic ecosystem functioning, but its response to climate warming is uncertain. Eight proxies of cryogenic soil activity (including measurements of soil surface motion, vegetation and grey values of aerial photographs) were examined at eight study sites where non-sorted patterned ground spans an elevation gradient (400-1150 m asl) and a precipitation gradient (300-1000 mm yr(-1)) near Abisko, northern Sweden. Six proxies were significantly correlated with each other (mean |r|=0.5). Soil surface motion increased by three to five times along the precipitation gradient and was two to four times greater at intermediate elevations than at low and high elevations, a pattern reflected by vegetation assemblages. The results suggest that inferences about how cryogenic soil activity changes with climate are independent of the choice of the proxy, although some proxies should be applied carefully. Four preferred proxies indicate that cryogenic soil activity may respond differently to climate warming along the elevation gradient and could be greatly modified by precipitation. This underlines the strong but spatially complex response of cryogenic processes to climate change in the Arctic. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2013
Keywords
periglacial geomorphology, climosequence, cryoturbation, differential frost heave, non-sorted circle, soil disturbance
National Category
Ecology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80763 (URN)10.1002/ppp.1778 (DOI)000323843700006 ()
Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Klaus, M., Holsten, A., Hostert, P. & Kropp, J. P. (2011). Integrated methodology to assess windthrow impacts on forest stands under climate change. Forest Ecology and Management, 261(11), 1799-1810
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated methodology to assess windthrow impacts on forest stands under climate change
2011 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 261, no 11, p. 1799-1810Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Storms have a high potential to cause severe ecological and economic losses in forests. We performed a logistic regression analysis to create a storm damage sensitivity index for North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, based on damage data of the storm event "Kyrill". Future storm conditions were derived from two regional climate models. We combined these measures to an impact metric, which is embedded in a broader vulnerability framework and quantifies the impacts of winter storms under climate change until 2060. Sensitivity of forest stands to windthrow was mainly driven by a high proportion of coniferous trees, a complex orography and poor quality soils. Both climate models simulated an increase in the frequency of severe storms, whereby differences between regions and models were substantial. Potential impacts will increase although they will vary among regions with the highest impacts in the mountainous regions. Our results emphasise the need for combining storm damage sensitivity with climate change signals in order to develop forest protection measures.

Keywords
forest damage, cyclone Kyrill, critical wind speed, forest protection, wind disturbance, impact index
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81549 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2011.02.002 (DOI)000291125700010 ()
Available from: 2013-10-15 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0747-3524

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