umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Pietilä, Tom
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Högström, G., Pietilä, T., Nordström, P. & Nordström, A. (2012). Body composition and performance: influence of sport and gender among adolescents. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7), 1799-1804
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition and performance: influence of sport and gender among adolescents
2012 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1799-1804Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body composition is well known to be associated with endurance performance amongst adult skiers, however the association among adolescent cross-country and alpine skiers is inadequately explored. The study sample was comprised of 145 male and female adolescent subjects (aged 15-17 years), including 48 cross-country skiers, 33 alpine skiers, and 68 control subjects. Body composition [%body fat, %lean mass, bone mineral density (g/cm2)] was measured with a dual-emission X-ray absorptiometer, and pulse and oxygen uptake were measured at three break points during incremental performance tests to determine physical fitness levels. Female cross-country and alpine skiers were found to have significantly higher %lean mass (mean difference = 7.7%, p < 0.001) and lower %body fat (mean difference = (8.1%, p < 0.001) than female control subjects. Male cross-country skiers were found to have lower %body fat (mean difference = 3.2%, p < 0.05) and higher %lean mass (mean difference = 3.3%, p < 0.01) than male alpine skiers and higher % lean mass (mean difference = 3.7%, p < 0.05) and % body fat (mean difference = 3.2%, p < 0.05) than controls. The present study found strong associations between %lean mass and the OBLA and VO2 max weight adjusted thresholds among both genders of the cross-country skiing cohort (r = 0.47-0.67, p < 0.05) and the female alpine skiing cohort (r = 0.77-0.79, p < 0.001 for all). The present study suggests that body composition is associated with physical performance already in adolescent athletes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
Keywords
bone mineral density, mussle mass, fat mass, gender
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy Surgery Geriatrics Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-55444 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0b013e318237e8da (DOI)
Available from: 2012-05-15 Created: 2012-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Söderman, K., Pietilä, T., Alfredson, H. & Werner, S. (2002). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels.. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 12(2), 65-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels.
2002 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this investigation was to study the consequences of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players. Special interest was focused on young female soccer players (< 16 years) sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injuries when playing at a senior level, which means playing together with players 19 years or older. In Sweden, all players belonging to an organized soccer club are insured by the same insurance company, the Folksam Insurance Company. Data of all soccer-related knee injuries in females reported to the Folksam Insurance Company between 1994 and 1998 were collected. A questionnaire was sent to 978 females who were registered to have sustained a knee injury before the age of 20 years. The response rate was 79%. Three hundred and ninety-eight female soccer players who had sustained an anterior cruciate ligament injury before the age of 19 years were analysed. Most of their anterior cruciate ligament injuries had been diagnosed using arthroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (84%). Thirty-eight percent of the players had been injured before the age of 16 years. Of these, 39% were injured when playing in senior teams. When playing in senior teams 59% of the players below the age of 16 years and 44% of the players 16 years or older sustained their ACL injuries during contact situations. At the time of this investigation (2-7 years after the anterior cruciate ligament injury), altogether 78% (n = 311) reported that they had stopped playing soccer. The most common reason (80%) was symptoms from their anterior cruciate ligament-injured knee. It appears that many young female soccer players injure their anterior cruciate ligament when playing at a senior level. Therefore, we suggest that female soccer players under the age of 16 years should be allowed to participate only in practice sessions but not games at a senior level.

Keywords
anterior cruciate ligament injury, young females, soccer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-32823 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.120201.x (DOI)12121422 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Söderman, K., Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T. & Werner, S. (2001). Risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players: a prospective investigation during one out-door season.. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 9(5), 313-321
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players: a prospective investigation during one out-door season.
2001 (English)In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The following possible risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players were studied: age, anatomical alignment, generalized joint laxity, thigh muscle torque, muscle flexibility, ligamentous laxity of the knee and ankle joints, recent injuries, and duration of soccer exposure. A total of 146 players from 13 teams in the second and third Swedish divisions underwent clinical examination, isokinetic measurements of quadriceps and hamstring torques, and testing of postural sway of the legs. All soccer-related leg injuries resulting in absence from at least one scheduled practice session or game were recorded during one outdoor season (April-October). In 50 players there were 61 traumatic injuries, and 17 players sustained 19 overuse injuries. The overall injury incidence rate (traumatic and overuse) was 5.49/1000 h of soccer. Variables significantly increasing the risk of traumatic leg injuries included generalized joint laxity, low postural sway of the legs, hyperextension of the knee joint, and a low hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio during concentric action. Multivariate logistic regression showed hyperextension of the knee joint, a low postural sway, reduced H/Q ratio during concentric action, and a higher exposure to soccer to significantly increase the risk of traumatic leg injury. All five players who suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury during the study period had a lower hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio during concentric action on the injured side than on their noninjured side.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-32829 (URN)10.1007/s001670100228 (DOI)11685365 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Söderman, K., Werner, S., Pietilä, T., Engström, B. & Alfredson, H. (2000). Balance board training: prevention of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities in female soccer players? A prospective randomized intervention study.. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 8(6), 356-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balance board training: prevention of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities in female soccer players? A prospective randomized intervention study.
Show others...
2000 (English)In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This prospective randomized intervention investigated whether training on a balance board could reduce the amount of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities in female soccer players. A total of 221 female soccer players from 13 different teams playing in the second and third Swedish divisions volunteered to participate in the study. Seven teams (n = 121) were randomized to an intervention group and six teams (n = 100) to a control group and were followed during one outdoor season (April-October). Before and after the season muscle flexibility and balance/postural sway of the lower extremities were measured in the players. There were no significant differences in age, height, weight, muscle flexibility and balance/postural sway of the lower extremities between the intervention and the control group. During the season the players in the intervention group performed a special training program consisting of 10-15 min of balance board training in addition to their standard soccer practice and games. After a 37% drop-out the intervention group consisted of 62 players and the control group of 78 players. The results showed no significant differences between the groups with respect either to the number, incidence, or type of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities. The incidence rate of "major" injuries was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Four of five anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurred in the intervention group, which means that we could not prevent severe knee injuries in female soccer players with balance board training. However, among the players who had been injured during the 3-month period prior to this investigation there were significantly more players from the control group than from the intervention group who sustained new injuries during the study period.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-32846 (URN)10.1007/s001670000147 (DOI)11147154 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Nordström, P., Pietilä, T. & Lorentzon, R. (1999). Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis. Calcified Tissue International, 64(5), 450-455
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis
1999 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 450-455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus preoperatively, but 12 months postoperatively BMD of the calcaneus was 16.4% lower at the injured side compared with the noninjured side. Heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training resulted in a fast recovery in all patients, equaled the side-to-side differences in muscle strength, and was not associated with side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. In this group of middle-aged recreational athletes, BMD of the calcaneus was not related to calf-muscle strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 1999
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35347 (URN)10.1007/PL00005827 (DOI)10203422 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T., Öhberg, L. & Lorentzon, R. (1998). Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength: the effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(2), 166-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength: the effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment
1998 (English)In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 166-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35354 (URN)0363-5465/98/2626-0166$02.00/0 (DOI)9548107 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T. & Lorentzon, R. (1998). Concentric and eccentric shoulder and elbow muscle strength in female volleyball players and non-active females. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 8(5 Pt 1), 265-270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentric and eccentric shoulder and elbow muscle strength in female volleyball players and non-active females
1998 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 8, no 5 Pt 1, p. 265-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Maximal isokinetic concentric (60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s) and eccentric (60 degrees/s) muscle strength of the external and internal rotator muscles of the shoulder and the flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow was measured in a position resembling spiking and serving in volleyball, on 11 non-injured female volleyball players (first division) and 11 non-active females. In the dominant arm, the volleyball players had significantly higher concentric peak torque of the internal and external rotators and elbow extensors at both velocities, and significantly higher eccentric peak torque of the shoulder internal and external rotators and elbow flexors and extensors, than the controls. In the volleyball group, the concentric internal rotation peak torque at 60 degrees/s was significantly higher in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. The external/internal strength ratio was significantly lower at 60 degrees/s, but not at 180 degrees/s, in the dominant arm. CONCLUSION: The female volleyball players had a higher concentric and eccentric strength in the rotator muscles of the shoulder and in the extensor muscles of the elbow compared to untrained controls in this special test position. There were signs of rotator muscle imbalance at the low test speed, but no signs of weakness of the external rotators, in the dominant arm of the volleyball players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 1998
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35349 (URN)9809384 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T., Jonsson, P. & Lorentzon, R. (1998). Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(3), 360-366
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis
1998 (English)In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 360-366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured side. A comparison group of 15 recreational athletes with the same diagnosis and a long duration of symptoms had been treated conventionally, i.e., rest, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, changes of shoes or orthoses, physical therapy, and in all cases also with ordinary training programs. In no case was the conventional treatment successful, and all patients were ultimately treated surgically. Our treatment model with heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training has a very good short-term effect on athletes in their early forties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage, 1998
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35351 (URN)9617396 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Nordström, P., Pietilä, T. & Lorentzon, R. (1998). Long-term loading and regional bone mass of the arm in female volleyball players. Calcified Tissue International, 62(4), 303-308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term loading and regional bone mass of the arm in female volleyball players
1998 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 303-308Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, we compared the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the arms of 11 female volleyball players (mean age 22.0 +/- 2.6 years) training for about 8 hours/week, and 11 nonactive females aged 24.6 +/- 3.1 years (mean +/- SD) not participating in regular or organized sport activity. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMC was measured in the proximal and distal humerus, and BMD in the distal radius. Isokinetic concentric peak torque (highest value attained during 5 or 10 repetitions) of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The volleyball players had significantly higher BMC (P < 0.05) at the proximal humerus of the dominant arm compared with the nonactive group, but there were no differences between the groups in BMC of the distal humerus and BMD of the distal radius. In the volleyball players, BMC was significantly higher at the proximal humerus, at the distal humerus, and at the distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm. In the nonactive group, there were no significant differences in BMC and BMD between the dominant and nondominant arm at any site measured. Except for shoulder internal rotation strength and elbow flexion strength at 90 degrees/second that was higher in the dominant arm in the volleyball players, there were no significant differences in muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow between the dominant and nondominant arm in the volleyball players and nonactive controls. In the volleyball players, but not in the nonactive controls, there were several significant relationships between shoulder and elbow strength and BMC at the distal humerus of the dominant and especially the nondominant arm. These results show that young female volleyball players have a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus, distal humerus, and distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm, and a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus compared with nonactive controls. Muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder is not related to the higher bone mass in the proximal humerus of the dominant arm. Theoretically, the observed differences in bone mass can be related to the type of loading the skeleton undergoes when playing volleyball.

Keywords
bone mass, muscle strength, arms, females, volleyball
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35355 (URN)10.1007/s002239900436 (DOI)9504954 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Alfredson, H., Pietilä, T. & Lorentzon, R. (1996). Chronic Achilles tendinitis and calf muscle strength. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(6), 829-833
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic Achilles tendinitis and calf muscle strength
1996 (English)In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 829-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We evaluated 10 men and 3 women (mean age, 44 +/- 8.5 years) with chronic Achilles tendinitis who underwent surgical treatment. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 6 weeks and a stepwise increasing strength training program. We prospectively studied calf muscle strength on the injured and noninjured sides preoperatively and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. Preoperatively, concentric peak torque in dorsiflexion at 90 deg/sec and plantar flexion at 225 deg/sec was significantly lower on the injured side. Postoperatively, concentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured side increased significantly between Weeks 16 and 26 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than the noninjured side from Weeks 16 to 52 at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Dorsiflexion peak torque at 90 and 225 deg/sec increased between Weeks 0 and 26 and was significantly higher on the injured side at Week 26. Eccentric plantar flexion peak torque was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but not at 1 year. This prospective study demonstrates that 6 months of postoperative rehabilitation for chronic Achilles tendinitis is not enough to recover concentric and eccentric plantar flexion muscle strength compared with the noninjured side.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage, 1996
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-35361 (URN)10.1177/036354659602400620 (DOI)8947407 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-13 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications