umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Persson, Ylva
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Cornelissen, G., Wiberg, K., Broman, D., Arp, H. P., Persson, Y., Sundqvist, K. & Jonsson, P. (2008). Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(23), 8733-8739
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, no 23, p. 8733-8739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-μm thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (CW) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain CW at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median CW in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3 PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (CPW) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of CPW with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-10464 (URN)10.1021/es8018379 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-12-02 Created: 2008-12-02 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Persson, Y., Hemström, K., Öberg, L., Tysklind, M. & Enell, A. (2008). Use of a column leaching test to study the mobility of chlorinated HOCs from a contaminated soil and the distribution of compounds between soluble and colloid phases. Chemosphere, 71(6), 1035-1042
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of a column leaching test to study the mobility of chlorinated HOCs from a contaminated soil and the distribution of compounds between soluble and colloid phases
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1035-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An equilibrium and recirculation column test for hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H test) was used to study the leaching behaviour of chlorophenols (CPs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) from contaminated soil. A 50% increase in the pore water velocity was shown to have little or no effect on the mobility of CPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs. The standard deviations of truly dissolved compounds, CPs, were between 19% and 65% between the tests. However, the repeatability of the ER-H test decreased with increases in the hydrophobicity of the studied compounds; the standard deviations for PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs ranged from 53% to 110%, 57% to 77% and 110% to 130%, respectively. The influence of colloids on the release of these compounds was also examined. Up to 30% of the CPs in the soil were leached, of which 1–3% were associated with colloids. The PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs were found to be preferably associated with the particulate fraction of the leachate, and less than 0.2% of these compounds were mobilised.

Keywords
Desorption, Chlorophenols, Hydrophobic organic contaminants, Leaching test, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, Polychlorinated dibenzofuran
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-9040 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.12.008 (DOI)000255329700004 ()18281078 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-03-26 Created: 2008-03-26 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Nording, M., Denison, M. S., Baston, D., Persson, Y., Spinnel, E. & Haglund, P. (2007). Analysis of dioxins in contaminated soils with the calux and caflux bioassays, an immunoassay, and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 26(6), 1122-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of dioxins in contaminated soils with the calux and caflux bioassays, an immunoassay, and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1122-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chemically activated luciferase expression assay, the chemically activated fluorescence expression assay, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are all bioanalytical methods that have been used for the detection and quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). However, no comparisons of the results obtained by these three methods have been published analyzing identical replicates of purified sample extracts. Therefore, we have evaluated the performance of each of these methods for analyzing PCDD/Fs in aliquots of extracts from aged-contaminated soil samples and compared the results with those obtained by gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). The quantitative performance was assessed and the effects of sample purification and data interpretation on the quality of the bioassay results were investigated. Results from the bioanalytical techniques were, in principle, not significantly different from each other or from the GC/HRMS data (p = 0.05). Furthermore, properly used, all of the bioanalytical techniques examined were found to be sufficiently sensitive, selective, and accurate to be used in connection with soil remediation activities when aiming at the remediation goal recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., <1000 pg toxic equivalency/g). However, a site-specific correction factor should be applied with the use of the ELISA to account for differences between the toxic equivalency factors and the ELISA cross-reactivities of the various PCDD/F congeners, which otherwise might significantly underestimate the PCDD/F content.

Keywords
CALUX, CAFLUX, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Soil, Dioxin
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16077 (URN)10.1897/06-458R.1 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-08-17 Created: 2007-08-17 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, S., Persson, Y., Frankki, S., van Bavel, B., Lundstedt, S., Haglund, P. & Tysklind, M. (2007). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: A multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 149(1), 86-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: A multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, Vol. 149, no 1, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keywords
Soil remediation, Chemical oxidation, Multivariate data analysis, Sequestration, Sorption
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16012 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.03.057 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-09-10 Created: 2007-09-10 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Persson, Y., Lundstedt, S., Öberg, L. & Tysklind, M. (2007). Levels of chlorinated compounds (CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs) in soils at contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden.. Chemosphere, 66(2), 234-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of chlorinated compounds (CPs, PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDFs and PCDDs) in soils at contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden.
2007 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 234-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Soil samples from five contaminated sawmill sites in Sweden were characterized with respect to chlorophenols (CP), chlorinated phenoxy phenols (PCPP, hydroxylated chlorinated diphenyl ethers), chlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE), chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). The composition of chlorinated compounds in the soil samples was compared to the composition of two preservatives commonly used in the Scandinavian wood impregnation industry: the 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol preservative called Ky-5 and the pentachlorophenol preservative Dowicide G. The levels of CPs in the soil samples ranged from 0.1 to 4500 mg kg−1 d.w., PCPPs from <0.15 to 940 mg kg−1 d.w., PCDEs from <38 to 6800 μg kg−1 d.w., PCDFs from 7.4 to 18 000 μg kg−1 d.w. and PCDDs from 9.9 to 35 000 μg kg−1 d.w. The resulting WHO-TEQ of PCDD/Fs in the soil samples ranged from 0.14 to 3000 μg kg−1 d.w. Despite a wide range of concentrations the congener compositions were similar within tetrachlorophenate and pentachlorophenate contaminated soils respectively. The contamination at each sawmill site may be linked to the use of either a tetrachlorphenol preservative, e.g. Ky-5, or a pentachlorophenol preservative, e.g. Dowicide G. Best-fit calculations were used to compare the chlorinated phenol contents of the preservatives to those of the soil samples. This revealed a positive correlation between the hydrophobicity (log Kow) of contaminants and the ratio of their levels in soil to preservatives. The relative abundance of the chlorinated compounds varied greatly between the five sites studied, suggesting that their transport parameters differ substantially.

Keywords
Benzofurans/analysis, Chlorophenols/analysis, Ethers/analysis, Hydrocarbons; Chlorinated/*analysis, Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis, Polymers/analysis, Soil/*analysis, Soil Pollutants/*analysis, Sweden, Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin/analogs & derivatives/analysis, Wood
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12584 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.052 (DOI)16860850 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Frankki, S., Persson, Y., Öberg, L., Skyllberg, U. & Tysklind, M. (2007). Mobility of Chloroaromatic Compounds in Soil: Case Studies of Swedish Chlorophenol-contaminated Sawmill Sites. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36(6), 452–7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility of Chloroaromatic Compounds in Soil: Case Studies of Swedish Chlorophenol-contaminated Sawmill Sites
Show others...
2007 (English)In: AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 452–7-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes recent studies on the environmental fate of chloroaromatic compounds in chlorophenol (CP)-contaminated soil and groundwater at Swedish sawmill sites. Relative proportions of CPs, polychlorinated phenoxy phenols (PCPPs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in preservatives, particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic matter (DOM), groundwater, and particles filtered from groundwater. All compound classes were found in the different compartments. The fraction of PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDDs, and PCDFs had increased in the soil samples relative to the proportions in the preservatives. This increase showed correlation with the hydrophobicity, that is, PCDDs had the largest increase. Similar correlation was found between hydrophobicity and the importance of partitioning to POM over DOM. The more water soluble compound group, CP, was found equally distributed between POM and DOM. For PCPPs, PCDEs, PCDDs, and PCDFs, the relative partitioning to POM increased with increased hydrophobicity. Despite the relative partitioning towards POM, compared with DOM, cotransport with DOM and suspended colloidal fractions was found to substantially increase the transport of these compounds in the groundwater samples.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-16866 (URN)doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[452:MOCCIS]2.0.CO;2 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-18 Created: 2007-10-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Frankki, S., Persson, Y., Shchukarev, A. & Tysklind, M. (2007). Partitioning of chloroaromatic compounds between the aqueous phase and dissolved and particulate soil organic matter at chlorophenol contaminated sites. Environmental Pollution, 148(1), 182-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partitioning of chloroaromatic compounds between the aqueous phase and dissolved and particulate soil organic matter at chlorophenol contaminated sites
2007 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 148, no 1, p. 182-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The retention and mobility of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soil is mainly determined by hydrophobic partitioning to dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively). The aqueous phase, DOM, and POM fractions were extracted and separated from soils at three sites contaminated with technical chlorophenol formulations. Concentrations of chlorophenols (CP), polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPP), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) were determined. The partitioning to POM, in relation to DOM, increased in all three soils with increasing hydrophobicity in the order CP < PCPP PCDE PCDF < PCDD. Differences in partitioning to DOM (log KDOC) and POM (log KPOC) could not be explained by differences in gross organic C chemistry. Black carbon did not contribute significantly to the sorption of PCDDs, whereas >70% wood fibre in one soil resulted in a decrease of log KPOC of 0.5 units for CPs and PCDDs. We conclude that log KOC for both DOM and POM need to be explicitly determined when the retention and mobility of HOCs is described and modelled in soils.

Increasing hydrophobicity of organic compounds increases the partitioning to particulate natural organic matter relative to dissolved natural organic matter.

Keywords
Hydrophobic organic contaminants, Soil organic matter, Dissolved organic matter, Particulate organic matter, Partitioning coefficients
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-13670 (URN)doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.029 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-05-14 Created: 2007-05-14 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Spinnel, E., Nording, M., Nichkova, M., Persson, Y., Gee, S., Hammock, B. D. & Haglund, P. (2006). Ase with Carbon Trap Combined with an Immunoassay as a Fast and Reliable Screening Method to Detect Polychlorinated-P-Dioxins and Furans from Soil Samöles. Organohalogen Compounds, 68, 936-939
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ase with Carbon Trap Combined with an Immunoassay as a Fast and Reliable Screening Method to Detect Polychlorinated-P-Dioxins and Furans from Soil Samöles
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 68, p. 936-939Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12875 (URN)
Available from: 2007-04-23 Created: 2007-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Tysklind, M., Persson, Y., Frankki, S., Andersson, R., Öberg, L. & Skyllberg, U. (2006). Chlorophenol Sites in Sweden - a Major Dioxin Reservoir with Complex Contamination Pattern. Organohalogen Compounds, 68, 895-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorophenol Sites in Sweden - a Major Dioxin Reservoir with Complex Contamination Pattern
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 68, p. 895-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12881 (URN)
Available from: 2007-04-23 Created: 2007-04-23 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, S., Persson, Y., Frankki, S., Lundstedt, S., van Bavel, B., Haglund, P. & Tysklind, M. (2006). Comparison of Fenton's Reagent and Ozone Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aged Contaminated Soils. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 6(4), 208-214
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Fenton's Reagent and Ozone Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aged Contaminated Soils
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1614-7480 (Online), Vol. 6, no 4, p. 208-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background, Aim and Scope: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion and are among the most frequently occurring contaminants in soils and sediments. PAHs are of great environmental concern due to their ubiquitous nature and toxicological properties. Consequently, extensive research has been conducted into the development of methods to remediate soils contaminated with PAHs. Fenton's reagent or ozone is the most commonly studied chemical oxidation methods. However, the majority of remediation studies use soils that have been artificially contaminated with either one or a limited number of PAH compounds in the laboratory. Hence, it is essential to extend such studies to soils contaminated with multiple PAHs under field conditions.

Objectives. The objective of this study is to investigate the capacity of Fenton's reagent and ozone to degrade PAHs in soils. The soils have been collected from a number of different industrial sites and, therefore, will have been exposed to different PAH compounds in varying concentrations over a range of time periods. The capacity of Fenton's reagent and ozone to degrade PAHs in industrially contaminated soils is compared to results obtained in studies using soils artificially contaminated with PAHs in the laboratory.

Materials and Methods: Nine soil samples, contaminated with PAHs, were collected from five different industrial sites in Sweden. For the Fenton's reagent procedure, the pH of the soil slurry samples was adjusted to pH 3 and they were kept at a constant temperature of 70ºC whilst H2O2 was added. For the ozone procedure, soil samples were mixed with 50% water and 50% ethanol and kept at a constant temperature of 45 ºC. Ozone was then continually introduced to each soil sample over a period of four hours. Following the Fenton's reagent and ozone oxidation procedures, the samples were filtered to isolate the solid phase, which was then extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The sample extracts were cleaned up using open columns and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The relative abundance of the detected PAHs varied between soils, associated with different industries. For example, low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were more abundant in soil samples collected from wood impregnation sites and high overall PAH degradation efficiencies were observed in soils originating from these sites. In the contaminated soils studied, PAHs were more effectively degraded using Fenton's reagent (PAH degradation efficiency of 40-86%) as opposed to ozone (PAH degradation efficiency of 10-70%). LMW PAHs were more efficiently degraded, using ozone as the oxidizing agent, whereas the use of Fenton's reagent resulted in a more even degradation pattern for PAHs with two through six fused aromatic rings.

Discussion: The degradation efficiency for both methods was largely dependent on the initial PAH concentration in the soil sample, with higher degradation observed in highly polluted soils. LMW PAHs are more susceptible to degradation than high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. As a result of this the relative abundance of large (often carcinogenic) PAHs increased after chemical oxidation treatment, particularly after ozone treatment. Repeated Fenton's reagent treatment did not result in any further degradation of soil PAHs, indicating that residual soil PAHs are strongly sorbed. The effectiveness of the two oxidation treatment approaches differed between industrial sites, thus highlighting the importance of further research into the influence of soil properties on the sorption capacity of PAHs.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the degree to which chemical oxidation techniques can degrade soil bound PAHs chemical degradation is highly dependent on both the concentration of PAHs in the soils and the compounds present, i.e. the various PAH profiles. Therefore, similarities in the PAH degradation efficiencies in the nine soil samples studied were observed with the two chemical oxidation methods used. However, the degradation performance of Fenton's reagent and ozone differed between the two methods. Overall, Fenton's reagent achieved the highest total PAH degradation due to stronger oxidation conditions. LMW PAHs showed higher susceptibility to oxidation, whereas high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs appear to be strongly sorbed to the soils and therefore less chemically available for oxidation. This study highlights the importance of including soils collected from a range of contaminated sites in remediation studies. Such soil samples will contain PAH contaminants of varying concentrations, chemical and physical properties, and have been aged under field conditions. In addition to the chemical and physical properties of the soils, these factors will all influence the chemical availability of PAHs to oxidation.

Recommendations and Perspectives: We recommend including aged contaminated soils in chemical degradation studies. In future chemical remediation work, we intend to investigate the potential influence of the chemical and physical properties of PAHs and soil parameters potential influence on the chemical oxidation efficiency in aged contaminated soils.

Due to the vast number of contaminated sites there is a great need of efficient remediation methods throughout the world. This study shows the difficulties which may be experienced when applying remediation methods to a variation of contaminated sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer, 2006
Keywords
aged contaminated soils, chemical oxidation, coke production, degradation, Fenton's reaction, gas works, ozone oxidation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil remediation, wood impregnation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-12414 (URN)10.1065/jss2006.08.179 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-08-13 Created: 2007-08-13 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications