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Hitimana, R., Lindholm, L., Krantz, G., Nzayirambaho, M. & Pulkki-Brännström, A.-M. (2018). Cost of antenatal care for the health sector and for households in Rwanda. BMC Health Services Research, 18, Article ID 262.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost of antenatal care for the health sector and for households in Rwanda
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2018 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rwanda has made tremendous progress in reduction of maternal mortality in the last twenty years. Antenatal care is believed to have played a role in that progress. In late 2016, the World Health Organization published new antenatal care guidelines recommending an increase from four visits during pregnancy to eight contacts with skilled personnel, among other changes. There is ongoing debate regarding the cost implications and potential outcomes countries can expect, if they make that shift. For Rwanda, a necessary starting point is to understand the cost of current antenatal care practice, which, according to our knowledge, has not been documented so far.

Methods: Cost information was collected from Kigali City and Northern province of Rwanda through two cross-sectional surveys: a household-based survey among women who had delivered a year before the interview (N = 922) and a health facility survey in three public, two faith-based, and one private health facility. A micro costing approach was used to collect health facility data. Household costs included time and transport. Results are reported in 2015 USD.

Results: The societal cost (household + health facility) of antenatal care for the four visits according to current Rwandan guidelines was estimated at $160 in the private health facility and $44 in public and faith-based health facilities. The first visit had the highest cost ($75 in private and $21 in public and faith-based health facilities) compared to the three other visits. Drugs and consumables were the main input category accounting for 54% of the total cost in the private health facility and for 73% in the public and faith-based health facilities.

Conclusions: The unit cost of providing antenatal care services is considerably lower in public than in private health facilities. The household cost represents a small proportion of the total, ranging between 3% and 7%; however, it is meaningful for low-income families. There is a need to do profound equity analysis regarding the accessibility and use of antenatal care services, and to consider ways to reduce households’ time cost as a possible barrier to the use of antenatal care.

Keywords
Antenatal care, Cost of care, Rwanda
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147461 (URN)10.1186/s12913-018-3013-1 (DOI)000430259300002 ()29631583 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Hitimana, R. (2018). Health economic evaluation for evidence-informed decisions in low-resource settings: the case of Antenatal care policy in Rwanda. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health economic evaluation for evidence-informed decisions in low-resource settings: the case of Antenatal care policy in Rwanda
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att använda hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar för att underlätta evidensinformerat beslutfattande i resursknappa miljöer : en studie av mödrahälsovård i Rwanda
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The general aim of this thesis is to contribute to the use of health economic evidence for informed health care decisions in low-resource settings, using antenatal care (ANC) policy in Rwanda as a case study. Despite impressive and sustained progress over the last 15 years, Rwanda’s maternal mortality ratio is still among the highest in the world. Persistent gaps in health care during pregnancy make ANC a good candidate among interventions that can, if improved, contribute to better health and well-being of mothers and newborns in Rwanda.

Methods: Data used in this thesis were gathered from primary and secondary data collections. The primary data sources included a cross-sectional household survey (N=922) and a health facility survey (N=6) conducted in Kigali city and the Northern Province, as well as expert elicitation with Rwandan specialists (N=8). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for women during the first-year post-partum was measured using the EQ-5D-3L instrument. The association between HRQoL and adequacy of ANC utilization and socioeconomic and demographic predictors was tested through bivariate and linear regression analyses (Paper I). The costs of current ANC practices in Rwanda for both the health sector and households were estimated through analysis of primary data (Paper II). Incremental cost associated with the implementation of the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) ANC recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda was estimated through simulation of attendance and adaptation of the unit cost estimates (Paper III). Incremental health outcomes of the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations were estimated as life-years saved from perinatal and maternal mortality reduction obtained from the expert elicitation (Paper III). Lastly, a systematic review of the evidence base for the cost and cost-effectiveness of routine ultrasound during pregnancy was conducted (Paper IV). The review included 606 studies published between January 1999 and April 2018 and retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane database.

Results: Sixty one percent of women had not adequately attended ANC according to the Rwandan guidelines during their last pregnancy; either attending late or fewer than four times. Adequate utilization of ANC was significantly associated with better HRQoL after delivery measured using EQ-VAS, as were good social support and household wealth. The most prevalent health problems were anxiety or depression and pain or discomfort. The first ANC visit accounted for about half the societal cost of ANC, which was $44 per woman (2015 USD) in public/faith-based facilities and $160 in the surveyed private facility. Implementing the 2016 WHO recommendations in Rwanda would have an incremental national annual cost between $5.8 million and $11 million across different attendance scenarios. The estimated reduction in perinatal mortality would be between 22.5% and 55%, while maternal mortality reduction would range from 7% to 52.5%. Out of six combinations of attendance and health outcome scenarios, four were below the GDP-based cost-effectiveness threshold. Out of the 606 studies on cost and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound during pregnancy retrieved from the databases, only nine reached the data extraction stage. Routine ultrasound screening was reported to be a cost-effective intervention for screening pregnant women for cervical length, for vasa previa, and congenital heart disease, and cost-saving when used for screening for fetal malformations.

Conclusions: The use of health economic evidence in decision making for low-income countries should be promoted. It is currently among the least used types of evidence, yet there is a huge potential of gaining many QALYs given persistent and avoidable morbidity and mortality. In this thesis, ANC policy in Rwanda was used as a case to contribute to evidence informed decision-making using health economic evaluation methods. Low-income countries, particularly those that that still have a high burden of maternal and perinatal mortality should consider implementing the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 91
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1995
Keywords
Antenatal, maternal, cost, cost-effectiveness, ultrasound, EQ-5D-3L, Low-income countries
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153600 (URN)978-91-7601-975-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-19, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Hitimana, R., Lindholm, L., Krantz, G., Nzayirambaho, M., Condo, J., Semasaka Sengoma, J. P. & Pulkki-Brännström, A.-M. (2018). Health-related quality of life determinants among Rwandan women after delivery: does antenatal care utilization matter? A cross-sectional study. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 37, Article ID 12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health-related quality of life determinants among Rwandan women after delivery: does antenatal care utilization matter? A cross-sectional study
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, ISSN 1606-0997, E-ISSN 2072-1315, Vol. 37, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite the widespread use of antenatal care (ANC), its effectiveness in low-resource settings remains unclear. In this study, self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was used as an alternative to other maternal health measures previously used to measure the effectiveness of antenatal care. The main objective of this study was to determine whether adequate antenatal care utilization is positively associated with women's HRQoL. Furthermore, the associations between the HRQoL during the first year (113 months) after delivery and socio-economic and demographic factors were explored in Rwanda.

Methods: In 2014, we performed a cross-sectional population-based survey involving 922 women who gave birth 1-13 months prior to the data collection. The study population was randomly selected from two provinces in Rwanda, and a structured questionnaire was used. HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D-3L and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The average HRQoL scores were computed by demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The effect of adequate antenatal care utilization on HRQoL was tested by performing two multivariable linear regression models with the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores as the outcomes and ANC utilization and socio-economic and demographic variables as the predictors.

Results: Adequate ANC utilization affected women's HRQoL when the outcome was measured using the EQ-VAS. Social support and living in a wealthy household were associated with a better HRQoL using both the EQ-VAS and EQ-5D. Cohabitating, and single/unmarried women exhibited significantly lower HRQoL scores than did married women in the EQ-VAS model, and women living in urban areas exhibited lower HRQoL scores than women living in rural areas in the ED-5D model. The effect of education on HRQoL was statistically significant using the EQ-VAS but was inconsistent across the educational categories. The women's age and the age of their last child were not associated with their HRQoL.

Conclusions: ANC attendance of at least four visits should be further promoted and used in low-income settings. Strategies to improve families' socio-economic conditions and promote social networks among women, particularly women at the reproductive age, are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
antenatal care, health-related quality of life, HRQoL, MaTHeR, social support, wealth, postnatal women
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147821 (URN)10.1186/s41043-018-0142-4 (DOI)000431455100002 ()29703248 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved
Hitimana, R., Lindholm, L., Krantz, G., Nzayirambaho, M., Semasaka Sengoma, J. P., Condo, J. & Pulkki-Brännström, A.-M. (2017). Health related quality of life determinants for Rwandan women after delivery. Paper presented at 10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017. European Journal of Public Health, 27(Suppl_3), 436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health related quality of life determinants for Rwandan women after delivery
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 436-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Health related quality of life determinants for Rwandan women after delivery. Does Antenatal care utilization matter? Maternal health conditions are still a major problem in most low-income countries. The postpartum health status and the effect of antenatal care utilization on health are relatively under researched. This study aims at (1) assessing whether receipt of antenatal care according to Rwandan guidelines is associated with mother’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and (2) exploring determinants associated with mother’s HRQoL in the first year (1-13 months) after delivery in Rwanda. In 2014 a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 922 women from Kigali City and Northern province of Rwanda, who gave birth in the period of 1–13 months prior to survey. The study population was randomly selected and interviewed using a questionnaire. HRQoL was measured using EQ-5D-3L. Average values of HRQoL were computed by demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The effect of adequate antenatal care on HRQoL was tested in two multivariable linear regression models - with EQ-5D weights and the Visual Analogue Scale score as outcomes respectively - with ANC adequacy and socio-demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors. Mean HRQoL was 0.92 using EQ-5D and 69.58 using EQ-VAS. Fifteen per cent reported moderate pain/discomfort and 1% reported extreme pain/discomfort, 16% reported being moderately anxious/depressed and 3% reported being extremely anxious/depressed. Having more than one child and being cohabitant or single/not married was associated with significantly lower HRQoL, while having good social support and belonging to the highest wealth quintile was associated with higher HRQoL. Antenatal care utilization was not associated with HRQoL among postpartum mothers. Policy makers should address the social determinants of health, and promote social networks among women. There is a need to assess the quality of Antenatal care in Rwanda.

Key messages:

  • Health related quality of life among postpartum mothers is high. Pain or discomfort and anxiety of depression are most prevalent problems.
  • Antenatal care utilization was not associated with HRQoL among postpartum mothers. Rather social determinants of health are important in determining mother's HRQoL
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143073 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckx186.101 (DOI)000414389805016 ()
Conference
10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Semasaka Sengoma, J. P., Mogren, I., Krantz, G., Nzayirambaho, M., Munyanshongore, C., Hitimana, R., . . . Pulkki-Brännström, A.-M.Estimation of the economic costs of pregnancy and delivery-related complications in Rwanda.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of the economic costs of pregnancy and delivery-related complications in Rwanda
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Hospital, pregnancy, pregnancy complication, delivery complication, cost
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152495 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2018-10-09
Hitimana, R., Lindholm, L., Krantz, G., Nzayirambaho, M. & Pulkki-Brännström, A.-M. Systematic Review of Cost and Cost-effectiveness of Routine Ultrasound during pregnancy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic Review of Cost and Cost-effectiveness of Routine Ultrasound during pregnancy
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153101 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-26
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0485-931x

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