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Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8418-3515
Alternative names
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Shanmugam, K., Gadhamshetty, V., Yadav, P., Athanassiadis, D., Tysklind, M. & Upadhyayula, V. K. .. (2019). Advanced High-Strength Steel and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Body in White for Passenger Cars: Environmental Performance and Sustainable Return on Investment under Different Propulsion Modes. ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, 7(5), 4951-4963
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced High-Strength Steel and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Body in White for Passenger Cars: Environmental Performance and Sustainable Return on Investment under Different Propulsion Modes
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2019 (English)In: ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 4951-4963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle lightweighting strategies must deliver sustainable returns to customers and society. This work evaluates the sustainable return on investment (SROI) of lightweighted advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)-intensive multimaterial bodies in white (BIWs) for automobiles. The SROI depends on the lightweighted BIW's manufacturing cost and the difference in sustainable cost between a baseline (mild steel) BIW and the lightweighted alternative. The sustainable cost is the sum of the customer's lifetime fuel (or electricity) costs and the costs of environmental externalities. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the environmental impacts of CFRP and AHSS BIWs in gasoline-fueled cars, bioethanol (E85)-fueled cars, and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) driven for a lifetime distance of 200 000 km. For cars fueled with gasoline- or corn-based bioethanol, the CFRP BIW yielded the lowest SROI; the AHSS BIW performed best for BEVs and cars fueled with wood bioethanol. However, the commercial availability of recycled carbon fiber should increase the SROI of the CFRP BIW in the future. Additionally, the SROI of CFRP BIWs is maximized when carbon fiber production is done using energy from a low carbon-intensity electric grid or decentralized sources such as waste-to-energy incineration plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
Keywords
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP), Advanced high strength steel (AHSS), Automotive dy in white, Automotive lightweighting Environmental performance, Sustainable return on vestment, Woody or corn bioethanol, Battery electric vehicle (BEV)
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157515 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05588 (DOI)000460600500042 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Shanmugam, K., Jansson, S., Gadhamshetty, V., Matsakas, L., Rova, U., Tysklind, M., . . . Upadhyayula, V. K. .. (2019). Ecoefficiency of Thermal Insulation Sandwich Panels Based On Fly Ash Modified with Colloidal Mesoporous Silica. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(24), 20000-20012
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecoefficiency of Thermal Insulation Sandwich Panels Based On Fly Ash Modified with Colloidal Mesoporous Silica
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2019 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 24, p. 20000-20012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current practice of landfilling fly ash generated by waste incineration is nonsustainable, so alternative ways of using this material are needed. Silanization effectively immobilizes the heavy metal contaminants in the incineration fly ash and enables its circular utilization because silanized fly ash (SFA) has market value as a low-cost filler for polymer composites. This study examines the ecoefficiency of a thermal insulation panel that consists of a polyurethane (PU) foam core sandwiched between two epoxy composite skins prepared by reinforcing glass fibers (GF) and SFA in epoxy resin. The ecoefficiency of such panels was evaluated by comparing their life cycle environmental externality costs (LCEE) to their life cycle costs (LCC). The LCEE was calculated by monetizing the panels' environmental impacts, which were quantified by performing a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results revealed that the ecoefficiency of the composite panels is positive (47%) and superior to that of market incumbent alternatives with PU foam or rockwool cores and steel skins. The two market incumbents have negative ecoefficiencies, primarily due to their high LCEE. The environmental performance of the panel with SFA GF epoxy composite skins can be further improved by using lignin-based epoxy resin or thermoplastic polypropylene as the polymer matrix of composite skins. Overall, application as a filler in fabricating polymer composite skins of sandwich panels is an upcycling pathway of SFA that combines circular economy prospects with sustainability benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
Ecoefficiency, Thermal insulation sandwich panels, Colloidal mesoporous silica, Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle costing, Lignin-epoxy resin
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167053 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b05726 (DOI)000503330400072 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-20022
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Upadhyayula, V. K. .., Parvatker, A. G., Baroth, A. & Shanmugam, K. (2019). Lightweighting and electrification strategies for improving environmental performante of passenger cars in India by 2030: A critical perspective based on life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209, 1604-1613
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightweighting and electrification strategies for improving environmental performante of passenger cars in India by 2030: A critical perspective based on life cycle assessment
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, p. 1604-1613Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Indian automotive industry is faced with an unenviable challenge of achieving a sustainable growth in one of the largest markets. Adapting to increasingly strict environmental norms by the government committed to reducing the national greenhouse gas emissions, growing concerns amongst the citizens over the deteriorating air quality in the cities are the major environmental sustainability challenges for the auto industry in next decade. In this study, we analyze the potential benefits of vehicle light weighting and introduction of electric vehicles through a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) of a standard sedan passenger vehicle. Based on the LCA results, five different scenarios are envisioned with different composition of the passenger vehicle fleet in 2030. These scenarios are used to analyze three key enviro-economical goals for India; (1) dependency on crude oil imports, (2) GHG emission reduction targets and (3) improvement in urban air quality. The results indicate that global warming potential (GWP) and fossil depletion impacts of ICEs can be reduced by 17%, while metal depletion reduces by 34% per vehicle with lightweighting. However, increase in freshwater ecotoxicity impact by 57% is one of the trade-offs. The GWP of a compact BEV powered with current (2014) and 2030 electricity grid mixes is 36% and 16% higher than petrol car. The GWP of a sub-compact BEV powered with current grid mix is 9% higher with current grid mix but 14% lower than petrol cars when powered with 2030 electricity grid mix. Crude oil consumption and GHG emissions are reduced by 20% with lightweight ICE fleet. Whereas, up to 45% reduction in crude oil consumption and 65% improvement in urban air quality can be achieved with BEV penetration scenarios. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
LCA and environmental performance, 2030 passenger vehicle fleet, Reduction of crude oil imports, Urban air quality improvement, Lightweighted ICEs, Compact and sub compact BEV
National Category
Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156587 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.153 (DOI)000457351900131 ()
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Shanmugam, K., Baroth, A., Nande, S., Abdelfattah, D., Tysklind, M. & Upadhyayula, V. K. .. (2019). Social Cost Benefit Analysis of Operating Compressed Biomethane (CBM) Transit Buses in Cities of Developing Nations: A Case Study. Sustainability, 11(15), Article ID 4190.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Cost Benefit Analysis of Operating Compressed Biomethane (CBM) Transit Buses in Cities of Developing Nations: A Case Study
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, article id 4190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cities in developing nations have to deal with two significant sustainability challenges amidst rampant urbanization. First, consumer-generated food waste is increasing monumentally since open dumping is still followed as a predominant practice, the negative environmental externalities associated with food waste disposal are growing beyond manageable proportions. Second, the dependency on conventional fuels like diesel to operate transit buses, which is one of the major causes for deteriorating urban air quality. A nexus established between food waste management and operation of transit buses can improve the sustainable performance of cities in developing nations. In this study, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) supported Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) is performed by considering a hypothetical scenario of establishing a large food waste treating biomethanation plant in Mumbai, India. The food waste from the city is transported to a biomethanation plant where it is subjected to an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The biogas produced as a byproduct is upgraded to compressed biomethane (CBM) and used as a vehicle fuel to operate transit buses within the city. The LCA results suggest that CBM buses can reduce greenhouse gas and particulate matter emissions by 60% compared to diesel or compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Fossil depletion potential of CBM buses is 98% lower than diesel, suggesting CBM’s importance in decoupling developing nations dependency on imported crude oil. The SCBA considers: (a) costs to stakeholders, i.e., fees for open dumping of food waste and cost of fuel for operating transit buses; and (b) social costs incurred by negative environmental externalities (obtained by monetizing LCA results) resulting from both, open dumping as well as fuel combustion. SCBA results indicate that the food waste-based CBM model can save 6.86 billion Indian rupees (USD 99.4 million) annually for Mumbai. The savings are made due to a reduction in stakeholder’s costs (fuel) coupled with societal, i.e., environmental externality costs if entire transit bus fleet operates on CBM fuel instead of conventional fuel mix (33:67 diesel to CNG) currently used. Although the study is performed for Mumbai, the results will be replicable to any city of developing nations facing similar issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
compressed biomethane for transit buses, food waste management in cities of developing nations, life cycle assessment, social cost benefit analysis, private and sustainable rate of returns
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162914 (URN)10.3390/su11154190 (DOI)000485230200195 ()2-s2.0-85070478704 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Upadhyayula, V. K. .., Gadhamshetty, V., Shanmugam, K., Souihi, N. & Tysklind, M. (2018). Advancing game changing academic research concepts to commercialization: A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based sustainability framework for making informed decisions in Technology Valley of Death (TVD). Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 133, 404-416
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing game changing academic research concepts to commercialization: A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based sustainability framework for making informed decisions in Technology Valley of Death (TVD)
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2018 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 133, p. 404-416Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many Game Changing Innovations (GCIs) from the academic institutions struggle in the Technology Valley of Death (TVD) and they fail to reach commercialization. The academic researchers often lack motivation to seek entrepreneurial opportunities for their GCIs. They are often discouraged after considering the burden required to convince private investors to finance their GCIs beyond technology readiness level 4. Further, many academic institutions lack a structured framework to bridge the divide between a basic research and viable product. Here we propose a four-pronged approach for developing sustainability performance metrics that can be used by early investors to understand the commercialization prospects of the GCIs: (1) conduct a screening-level LCA of the GCI and simultaneously reduce uncertainties of underlying data and technological readiness; (2) compare the LCA performance of the GCI with similar commercial products in the target market; (3) factor the LCA results into investment evaluation methods; and (4) transform LCA results into indicators that reflect sustainability performance of the innovation. Finally, we present a case study that highlights the use of this approach for developing commercial opportunities for the emerging graphene-composites as corrosion resistant coatings for civil infrastructure applications. The paper also suggests an approach for promoting a sustainability driven innovation culture in academia.

Keywords
Game changing innovations, Technology Valley of Death, Academia, Life Cycle Assessment, stainability framework, Graphene coatings case study
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147427 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.12.029 (DOI)000429753900039 ()
Available from: 2018-07-20 Created: 2018-07-20 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Chilkoor, G., Karanam, S. P., Star, S., Shrestha, N., Sani, R. K., Upadhyayula, V. K. K., . . . Gadhamshetty, V. (2018). Hexagonal Boron Nitride: The Thinnest Insulating Barrier to Microbial Corrosion. ACS Nano, 12(3), 2242-2252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hexagonal Boron Nitride: The Thinnest Insulating Barrier to Microbial Corrosion
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2018 (English)In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 2242-2252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the use of a single layer of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (SL-hBN) as the thinnest insulating barrier to microbial corrosion induced by the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We used electrochemical methods to assess the corrosion resistance of SL-hBN on copper against the effects of both the planktonic and sessile forms of the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cyclic voltammetry results show that SL-hBN-Cu is effective in suppressing corrosion effects of the planktonic cells at potentials as high as 0.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The peak anodic current for the SL-hBN coatings is ∼36 times lower than that of bare Cu. Linear polarization resistance tests confirm that the SL-hBN coatings serve as a barrier against corrosive effects of the G20 biofilm when compared to bare Cu. The SL-hBN serves as an impermeable barrier to aggressive metabolites and offers ∼91% corrosion inhibition efficiency, which is comparable to much thicker commercial coatings such as polyaniline. In addition to impermeability, the insulating nature of SL-hBN suppresses galvanic effects and improves its ability to combat microbial corrosion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
2D coatings, hexagonal boron nitride, microbial corrosion, sulfate-reducing bacteria
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-146804 (URN)10.1021/acsnano.7b06211 (DOI)000428972600017 ()29432687 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Shanmugam, K., Tysklind, M. & Upadhyayula, V. K. .. (2018). Use of Liquefied Biomethane (LBM) as a Vehicle Fuel for Road Freight Transportation: A Case Study Evaluating Environmental Performance of Using LBM for Operation of Tractor Trailers. Paper presented at 25th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, 30 April - 2 May 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark. Procedia CIRP, 69, 517-522
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Liquefied Biomethane (LBM) as a Vehicle Fuel for Road Freight Transportation: A Case Study Evaluating Environmental Performance of Using LBM for Operation of Tractor Trailers
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 69, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The environmental performance of Liquefied Biomethane (LBM) and Diesel operated Tractor Trailer (TT) is compared using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. In this study we consider, raw biogas produced from an anaerobic digestion process of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Umea, Sweden, which is then upgraded and liquefied to LBM and used as a fuel for TTs. Currently, the WWTP in Umea is utilizing biogas, produced onsite for cogeneration of heat and electricity, thereby meeting its energy needs. A system expansion approach is applied where electricity and heat equivalent to amount of biogas displaced for LBM production is supplied from Swedish grid (SE) mix and incineration of wood chips respectively. Correspondingly, the biogas avoided for cogeneration of electricity and heat is accounted in the study. The equivalent functional unit chosen for the LCA study is “16,000,000 ton-km of a TT transporting products and goods”. The study is modelled using SimaPro LCA Software. The ReCiPe Midpoint (H) impact assessment methodology is used to quantify ten selected and relevant midpoint environmental impacts. When compared with Diesel TT system, LBM TT exhibits superior environmental performance in seven out of ten impact categories measured than the Diesel TT system. The highest reduction is seen in Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Fossil Depletion Potential (FDP) impacts thereby suggesting that LBM derived from raw biogas of WWTP an environmentally preferred alternative to diesel for operation of TTs. However, this value proposition can have other trade-offs such as increase in eutrophication and ecotoxicity impacts. Further, replacing diesel with LBM for TT operation may not have any significant environmental benefits when electricity is drawn from carbon intensive grid mixes (e.g. coal).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Liquefied Biomethane, Life Cycle Assessment, Tractor Trailers, Environmental Impacts
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147564 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.11.133 (DOI)000435141900089 ()
Conference
25th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Conference, 30 April - 2 May 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Upadhyayula, V. K. K., Meyer, D. E., Gadhamshetty, V. & Koratkar, N. (2017). Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Graphene-Poly(ether imide) Coatings Protecting Unalloyed Steel from Severe Atmospheric Corrosion. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(3), 2656-2667
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Graphene-Poly(ether imide) Coatings Protecting Unalloyed Steel from Severe Atmospheric Corrosion
2017 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 2656-2667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major concern for exposed steel in structural applications is susceptibility to atmospheric corrosion. The International Organization for Standardization classifies atmospheric environments into six zones, C1-C5 and CX, based on factors such as humidity, airborne salinity, and acidic pollutants. The C5 and CX zones are characterized by aggressive atmospheric corrosivity that results in mass losses from steel structures. hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) zinc coatings are typically used to protect steel in C5 and CX environments. HDG coatings suffer from disadvantages related to shorter service lives and the need for frequent maintenance cycles. Graphene-reinforced poly(ether imide) (PEI) coatings have been proposed as suitable alternatives to address these issues. However, general concerns regarding the implications of nanomaterials make it necessary to understand the potential environmental impacts of these coatings. A screening-level cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment is conducted to evaluate the environmental performance of a graphene-PEI-steel structure when compared with a traditional HDG-zinc-steel structure. Impact assessment scores are calculated using the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Environmental and other Potential impacts v2.1 and SimaPro (v8.0.3). When considering inventory uncertainty, the graphene-PEI-steel structure yields smaller potential impacts in five of the ten categories assessed when assuming the graphene-based coating requires no maintenance during the service life of the structure. Scenario-based sensitivity studies reveal that the potential impacts are highly sensitive to the service life and maintenance needs of the coating, but insensitive to the use of thermally or chemically functionalized graphene to improve coating adhesion. Further research is needed to understand the long-term performance of the graphene-based coatings and reduce the uncertainty of the inventory.

Keywords
Corrosion, Graphene, Civil infrastructure, Life cycle analysis, Sustainability
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133780 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b03005 (DOI)000395846900070 ()
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Chilkoor, G., Upadhyayula, V. K., Gadhamshetty, V., Koratkar, N. & Tysklind, M. (2017). Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 19(2), 141-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 141-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from the risks include: (i) coat the interior surface of the tank with solvent free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) add a biocide in the tank. We present a screening-level, life cycle assessment study to evaluate and compare the environmental performance of graphene-oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system. TRACI is used as an impact assessment tool to model midpoint environmental impacts for the ten categories: global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq.); acidification potential (AP, kg SO2 eq.); potential human health damage impacts due to carcinogens (HH-CP, CTUh) and non-carcinogens (HH-NCP, CTUh); potential respiratory effects (REP, kg PM2.5 eq); eutrophication potential (EP, kg N eq); ozone depletion potential (ODP kg CFC-11 eq); ecotoxicity potential (ETXP, CTUe); smog formation potential (SFP kg O3 eq); and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFDP MJ surplus). The equivalent functional unit of the LCA study is designed to protect the 30 m2 of the interior surface (unalloyed steel sheet) of a 10,000 liters biodiesel tank against abiotic and biotic corrosion during its service life of 20 years. Overall, this LCA study highlights an improved environmental performance for the GOE liner compared to the incumbent system; GOE-liner system showed: 91% lower ODP impacts; 59% smaller for REP; 62% smaller for AP; 67-69% smaller for GWP and HH-CP; 72-76% smaller for EP, SFP, and FFDP; and 81-83% smaller for ETXP and HH-NCP categories. The scenario analysis study reveals that these potential impacts change by less than 15% when the GOE liners are functionalized with silanized-GO nanosheets or GO-reinforced, polyvinyl carbazole to improve the antimicrobial properties. The results from uncertainty analysis indicate that the impacts for the incumbent system are more sensitive to changes in key modeling parameters compared to that for GOE liner system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
Keywords
Biocide, Graphene Oxide, Microbial Induced Corrosion, Epoxy Liners, 71 Biodiesel, Life Cycle A ssessment
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129955 (URN)10.1039/C6EM00552G (DOI)000395871600006 ()
Projects
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8418-3515

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