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Högberg, B., Strandh, M., Petersen, S. & Johansson, K. (2019). Education system stratification and health complaints among school-aged children. Social Science and Medicine, 220, 159-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Education system stratification and health complaints among school-aged children
2019 (English)In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 220, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research shows that the school environment is an important social determinant of health among children and adolescents. However, we know virtually nothing of the health consequences of national education systems and policies, for example the stratification of pupils by academic ability. This study aimed to investigate if education system stratification is related to self-reported psychological and somatic health complaints of pupils aged 11 to 15, and social inequalities in such health complaints.

Survey data from the Health Behaviors of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, covering 33 countries and more than 180 000 pupils in primary and lower secondary school, were used. Multilevel models showed that education system stratification was not associated with the average levels of health complaints of pupils, but cross-level interaction effects showed that stratification moderated the relationship between social background and health complaints, such that inequalities in health complaints were smaller in countries with more stratified systems. Moreover, this moderating effect was mediated by the school learning environmentand social relations in school. Specifically, social inequalities in school pressure, academic self-concept, school climate, and school satisfaction were smaller in more stratified education systems, which in turn accounted for smaller inequalities in health complaints in these countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Health complaints, Health inequalities, Education systems, Schools Children, Adolescents, Multilevel, Comparative research
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155320 (URN)10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.11.007 (DOI)000456222400017 ()30445341 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00048Swedish Research Council, 2018-03870_3
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B. (2019). Educational policies and social inequality in well-being among young adults. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 40(5), 664-681
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational policies and social inequality in well-being among young adults
2019 (English)In: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 664-681Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inequalities in health and well-being are important contemporary public health issues. This article is the first to investigate the institutional causes of inequality in well-being among youth in a comparative perspective. Data from the European Social Survey are used to analyse how educational policies moderate the association between social background and well-being. Multilevel techniques are used to investigate cross-level interactions between social background and educational policies on life satisfaction. Four indicators of inclusive educational policies are analysed: age of tracking, costs of education, enrolment rates, and second-chance opportunities in the educational system. The results show that educational policies indeed moderate the association between social background and well-being: inequalities as measured by the father’s social class are smaller in countries where educational policies are more inclusive. Moreover, the analysis shows that the moderating impact of education policies is mediated by individual-level education, activity status, and income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Educational policies, well-being, social inequality, inclusive education, youth
National Category
Social Work Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154121 (URN)10.1080/01425692.2019.1576119 (DOI)000463948700001 ()2-s2.0-85063793112 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Assarsson, R., Petersen, S., Högberg, B., Strandh, M. & Johansson, K. (2019). Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: a cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS). Global Health Action, 11, Article ID 1663619.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: a cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)
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2019 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, article id 1663619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Gender equality, adolescents, suicide ideation, global health, mental health, child, inequality, low income populations, gender, suicide
National Category
General Practice Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164000 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2019.1663619 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072558412 (Scopus ID)
Note

SPECIAL ISSUE: Gender and Health Inequality

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B., Strandh, M. & Baranowska-Rataj, A. (2019). Transitions from temporary employment to permanent employment among young adults: The role of labour law and education systems. Journal of Sociology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transitions from temporary employment to permanent employment among young adults: The role of labour law and education systems
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0004-8690Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Temporary work is common across Europe, especially among young people. Whether temporary employment is a transitory stage on the road to standard employment, and whether this varies depending on institutional contexts, is controversial. This article investigates variability in transition rates from temporary to permanent employment across Europe, and how this is related to employment protection legislation (EPL) and the vocational specificity of education systems. We utilize harmonized panel data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, covering 18 European countries and including 34,088 temporary workers aged 18–30. The results show that stricter EPL is associated with lower rates of transitions to permanent employment, while partial deregulation, with strict EPL for permanent contracts but weaker EPL for temporary contracts, is associated with higher transition rates. Vocationally specific education systems have higher transition rates, on average. Moreover, the role of EPL is conditional on the degree of vocational specificity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
age groups, education systems, employment opportunities, labour market, social stratification, unemployment, welfare state, youth
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology; Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163490 (URN)10.1177/1440783319876997 (DOI)000488721600001 ()
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-24
Högberg, B. (2019). Transitions from Unemployment to Education in Europe: The Role of Educational Policies. Journal of Social Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transitions from Unemployment to Education in Europe: The Role of Educational Policies
2019 (English)In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to investigate cross-country variability in transition rates from unemployment to further education among young adults, as well as how barriers in educational systems affect these transition rates. Previous research on adult further education has largely neglected the role of policies, and has not taken unemployed people into account.

Two dimensions of educational policies are investigated. (1) Barriers facing prospective students with regard to previous academic achievements (e.g. second chance opportunities); and (2) financial barriers (e.g. high costs). It is hypothesized that low barriers are associated with higher transition rates into education, especially for unemployed young adults with lower levels of education.

The aim is approached by investigating how differences in transition rates across countries are linked to the design of educational policies. Cross-country standardised individual-level panel data from 29 European countries are taken from EU-SILC. Multilevel multinomial models are fitted.

Results show that lower barriers in the education system are associated with higher probabilities that unemployed young adults leave unemployment to re-enter further education, although only partial support is found for the hypothesis that unemployed young adults with lower levels of education gain relatively more from low barriers. Low barriers are sometimes associated with lower transition rates into employment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2019
National Category
Social Work Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154122 (URN)10.1017/S0047279418000788 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060004657 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-05-13
Högberg, B., Vossemer, J., Gebel, M. & Strandh, M. (2019). Unemployment, well-being, and the moderating role of education policies: A multilevel study. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 60(4), 269-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unemployment, well-being, and the moderating role of education policies: A multilevel study
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, ISSN 0020-7152, E-ISSN 1745-2554, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 269-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to investigate if education policies moderate the association between unemployment and well-being among young adults. Based on the capability approach, we argue that education policies mitigate the negative effects of unemployment by providing opportunities for education and thus ways to exit unemployment. Education policies can strengthen capabilities, enhance the control that individuals have over their situation, and thereby reduce the stress associated with unemployment. We estimated cross-level interactions between education policies and unemployment status using multilevel methods and data from the European Social Survey. Results showed that policies that increase educational opportunities—such as generous second chance opportunities—were associated with smaller negative effects of unemployment on well-being and that this moderating impact was stronger for young adults with low education. Further analyses show that education policies are also associated with perceived capabilities among unemployed, supporting the proposed mechanism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Capabilities, education policies, spillover effects, unemployment, well-being, young adults
National Category
Sociology Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162919 (URN)10.1177/0020715219874386 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-10-15Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B. (2019). Vulnerability and inequalities in health and wellbeing: the role of social policy. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerability and inequalities in health and wellbeing: the role of social policy
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the moderating role of social policies for the association between vulnerable social positions and health and wellbeing. Vulnerable social positions are identified in relation to age-related transition points in to or out of the labour market. Specifically, the focal groups are young adults, on the route to establish themselves in the labour market, and older persons, having just left the labour market, and inequalities by labour market status, class, or gender within these age groups. The thesis moreover aims to contribute to the theoretical development of the comparative health literature, by developing and implementing a theoretical framework for analyzing the role of social policy for the health and wellbeing of vulnerable groups.

Data and methods: The aim is addressed through a cross-country comparative approach, by fitting multilevel regression models on harmonized individual level data from the European Social Survey. Specifically, cross-level interactions between social position and social policies are estimated, with self-reported general health and psychological wellbeing as outcomes. The focal social policies are pension systems and elderly care policies, as well as education policies.

Results and conclusions: Overall, the empirical results showed that public investment in, and public organization of, elderly care was associated with smaller health inequalities by both social class and gender, and that redistributive minimum pensions were associated with smaller inequalities by social class, while more status-maintaining standard pensions were associated with larger gender-based inequalities. Regarding the role of education policies, the analyses showed that inclusive policies – specifically low degree of tracking, generous second chance opportunities, low out-of-pocket costs for, and a larger supply of, education – were associated with smaller inequalities by both social background and employment status. The overall conclusion of the thesis is that redistributive social policies, which distribute essential resources to vulnerable groups, have the potential to reduce inequalities in health and wellbeing between vulnerable and more advantaged groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 101
Series
Studier i socialt arbete vid Umeå universitet : avhandlings- och skriftserie, ISSN 0283-300X ; 94
Keywords
Social policy, Welfare state, Vulnerability, Inequality, Social stratification, Health, Wellbeing
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162921 (URN)978-91-7855-089-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-27, S Hörsal 205, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-06 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B., Strandh, M., Baranowska-Rataj, A. & Johansson Sevä, I. (2018). Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: a multilevel analysis. Journal of European Social Policy, 28(4), 311-325
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ageing, health inequalities and the welfare state: a multilevel analysis
2018 (English)In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Comparative studies of health inequalities have largely neglected age and ageing aspects, while ageing research has often paid little attention to questions of social inequalities. This article investigates cross-country differences in gradients in self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness (LLSI) in middle-aged and in older people (aged 50–64 and 65–80 years) linked to social class, and degrees to which the social health gradients are associated with minimum pension levels and expenditure on elderly care. For these purposes, data from the European Social Survey (2002–2010) are analysed using multilevel regression techniques. We find significant cross-level interaction effects between class and welfare policies: higher expenditure on elderly care and particularly more generous minimum pensions are associated with smaller health inequalities in the older age group (65–80 years). It is concluded that welfare policies moderate the association between social class and health, highlighting the importance of welfare state efforts for older persons, who are strongly reliant on the welfare state and welfare state arrangements such as pensions and care policies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
health equity, LLSI, social class, social gradient, subjective health
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143461 (URN)10.1177/0958928717739234 (DOI)000445639900001 ()
Funder
Welfare and Life-course
Available from: 2018-01-01 Created: 2018-01-01 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Högberg, B. (2018). Gender and health among older people: What is the role of social policies?. International Journal of Social Welfare, 27(3), 236-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and health among older people: What is the role of social policies?
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 236-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study investigated how social policies moderate the association between gender and health among older people across European countries. The study is the first to take a comprehensive view on the role of social policies in connection with gender inequality in health among older Europeans. The association between gender and poor self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness was investigated in a multilevel framework. Cross-level interaction effects showed that more generous minimum pensions, higher spending on eldercare and a higher degree of eldercare formalisation are associated with relatively better health among women, while more generous standard pensions are associated with relatively better health among men. The conclusion is that policies directed towards older people are not gender neutral; rather they are likely to affect men and women differently. By shaping the distribution of resources as well as of unpaid work, social policies can contribute to either strengthening or weakening the link between gender and health.

Keywords
gender equality, health inequality, ageing, pension policies, eldercare
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150370 (URN)10.1111/ijsw.12309 (DOI)000438343500004 ()2-s2.0-85041022506 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
Baranowska-Rataj, A. & Högberg, B. (2018). Spillover effects of social policies: Can the state support for the unemployed affect employees’ health and wellbeing?. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spillover effects of social policies: Can the state support for the unemployed affect employees’ health and wellbeing?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018. p. 24
Keywords
labour market, welfare state, social policy, mental health
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153615 (URN)
Projects
EXCEPT
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 649496
Available from: 2018-11-24 Created: 2018-11-24 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0199-0435

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