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Miklikowska, Marta
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Miklikowska, M., Bohman, A. & Titzmann, P. F. (2019). Driven by Context?: The Interrelated Effects of Parents, Peers, Classrooms on Development of Prejudice Among Swedish Majority Adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 55(11), 2451-2463
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driven by Context?: The Interrelated Effects of Parents, Peers, Classrooms on Development of Prejudice Among Swedish Majority Adolescents
2019 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 2451-2463Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prejudice is one of the major threats to the cohesion of multicultural societies and adolescent years play a key role in its development. How social contexts contribute to adolescent prejudice is, however, not yet well-known. This 3-wave study of Swedish majority adolescents (N = 659; M-ageT1 = 13.41; M-ageT3 = 17.33) examined the effects of parents' and peers' attitudes on changes in youth attitudes toward immigrants as well as an interplay between parent, peer, and school context. The results of multilevel analyses revealed that within-person fluctuations in youth attitudes were positively related to fluctuations in peers' but not parents' attitudes. Both parents' and peers' attitudes, however, significantly predicted the differences in level and rate of change in attitudes between adolescents. In addition to these direct effects, mediation analysis showed that parents' attitudes predicted youth attitudes indirectly, via the attitudes of the peers youth associate with, suggesting an overall greater importance of parental bias. Peers' attitudes did not moderate the effects of parents but youth from ethnically diverse classrooms were less affected by their parents' prejudice than youth from less diverse classrooms. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of social context in the development of prejudice. They suggest that while parents set the stage, peers explain the day-to-day variation in prejudice, and that classroom diversity offsets some of the negative effects of parental bias.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2019
Keywords
adolescent prejudice, anti-immigrant attitudes, parents, peers, classroom diversity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165104 (URN)10.1037/dev0000809 (DOI)000492783100017 ()31512893 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M., Thijs, J. & Hjerm, M. (2019). The Impact of Perceived Teacher Support on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes from Early to Late Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(6), 1175-1189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Perceived Teacher Support on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes from Early to Late Adolescence
2019 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1175-1189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although research has shown that school context has consequences for intergroup attitudes, few studies have examined the role of teacher qualities, such as teacher support. In addition, previous research has paid limited attention to the mechanisms that could help to explain teacher effects. This 5-wave study (2010–2015) examined the effects of perceived teacher support on the anti-immigrant attitudes of Swedish majority youth (N = 671, Mage = 13.41, 50.2% girls, 34 classrooms). It also tested whether social trust would mediate these effects. The results of multilevel analyses showed that perceived teacher support was associated with less prejudice at all levels of analysis. At the within-person level, fluctuations in teacher support were related to fluctuations in youth prejudice: in years when, on average, adolescents perceived their teachers as more supportive, they reported lower prejudice. At the between-person level, adolescents who perceived their teachers as more supportive compared to their peers reported lower prejudice. Similarly, classrooms where students shared an experience of teacher support were lower in prejudice than classrooms with weaker teacher support. The results also showed that social trust explained teacher effects: adolescents who experienced their teachers as more supportive displayed higher levels of trust and, in turn, lower levels of prejudice than youth with less supportive teachers. These findings suggest that teachers can counteract the development of prejudice and facilitate social trust in adolescents by being supportive of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Anti-immigrant attitudes, Teacher support, Social trust, School context, Adolescence, Attachment
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159846 (URN)10.1007/s10964-019-00990-8 (DOI)000468355700010 ()30847638 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04165Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2018). Empathy Trumps Prejudice: The Longitudinal Relation Between Empathy and Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 54(4), 703-717
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empathy Trumps Prejudice: The Longitudinal Relation Between Empathy and Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Adolescence
2018 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1895-6297, E-ISSN 2084-3879, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 703-717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes and, hence, its practical implications are unclear. In addition, longitudinal research on adolescents is still scarce. This three-wave study of adolescents (N = 574) examined a longitudinal, within-person relation between empathy and anti-immigrant attitudes. The "standard" cross-lagged model showed bidirectional effects between empathic concern, perspective taking, and anti-immigrant attitudes. In contrast, the Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model showed, that only perspective taking directly predicted within-person changes in anti-immigrant attitudes. Empathic concern predicted within-person changes in anti-immigrant attitudes indirectly, via its effects on perspective taking. No effects of anti-immigrant attitudes on within-person changes in empathy were found. The relations between empathic concern, perspective taking, and anti-immigrant attitudes were significant at the between-person level. In addition, the results showed changes in anti-immigrant attitudes and perspective taking and a change in empathic concern in mid- but not late adolescence. The results provide strong evidence for the effects of perspective taking on development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence. They also suggest that the link between empathic concern and adolescents’ anti-immigrant attitudes can be explained by indirect, within-person effects and by between-person differences. The findings suggest that programs aimed at reducing development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence should work more closely with youth perspective taking and empathic concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2018
Keywords
Empathy, Anti-Immigrant Attitudes, Perspective Taking, Development of Prejudice, Intergroup Bias and Attitudes, Reducing Prejudice in Adolescence
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141275 (URN)10.1037/dev0000474 (DOI)000429165200009 ()29239638 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04165Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0446:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2018). Tolerance. In: Marc H. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development: (pp. 2249-2250). Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolerance
2018 (English)In: The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development / [ed] Marc H. Bornstein, Sage Publications, 2018, p. 2249-2250Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tolerance is commonly defined as putting up with ideas, persons, or practices that one disagrees with or dislikes. Theory and research have focused on one particular kind of tolerance, namely political tolerance, that concerns the willingness to extend civil liberties to disliked groups. Although difficult and complex, political tolerance has been considered a key to the sustenance of democratic and increasingly diverse societies. Knowledge of tolerance development and factors that influence this process is essential for fostering tolerance in societies. This entry summarizes key points in understanding tolerance and its development employing a scientific lifespan perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137074 (URN)10.4135/9781506307633.n834 (DOI)9781506307657 (ISBN)9781506307633 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2017). Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: the role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy. British Journal of Psychology, 108(3), 626-648
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: the role of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy
2017 (English)In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 626-648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers’ anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents’ anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents’ intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents’ empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers’ prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents’ empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
anti-immigrant attitudes, socialization, empathy, intergroup friendships, parents, peers, prejudice, empathic concern, perspective taking, intergroup contact, prejudice development, prejudice prevention, adolescents
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137071 (URN)10.1111/bjop.12236 (DOI)000404962200010 ()28105654 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2017). The apple does not fall far from the tree or does it?: The role of parents in developmentof tolerance and intolerance among adolescents. In: Erik Lundberg (Ed.), Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology (pp. 281-302). Stockholm: The Living History Forum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The apple does not fall far from the tree or does it?: The role of parents in developmentof tolerance and intolerance among adolescents
2017 (English)In: Mechanisms of tolerance: an anthology / [ed] Erik Lundberg, Stockholm: The Living History Forum , 2017, p. 281-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: The Living History Forum, 2017
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137066 (URN)978-91-86261-63-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2015). Like parent, like child?: development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants. British Journal of Psychology, 107(1), 95-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Like parent, like child?: development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants
2015 (English)In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of parents, there is no longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. In addition, research on socialization of intergroup attitudes has omitted possible effects of adolescents on their parents. We also know little about the conditions under which intergroup attitudes are transmitted. This two-wave, 2 years apart, study of adolescents (N = 507) and their parents examined the relations between parents and adolescents' prejudice and tolerance from a longitudinal perspective. The study tested whether parental prejudice and tolerance would predict over-time changes in adolescents' attitudes and whether adolescents' prejudice and tolerance would elicit changes in parental attitudes. Additionally, it explored whether some of the effects would depend on perceived parental support. Results showed significant bidirectional influences between parents and adolescents' attitudes. In addition, adolescents who perceived their parents as supportive showed higher parent–adolescent correspondence in prejudice than youth with low parental support. These findings show that intergroup attitudes develop as a result of mutual influences between parents and adolescents. Hence, the unidirectional transmission model and previous research findings should be revisited. The results also suggest that parents' prejudice influence adolescents' attitudes to the extent that youth perceive their parents as supportive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The British Psychological Society, 2015
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136923 (URN)10.1111/bjop.12124 (DOI)000368089700009 ()25702782 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Fry, D. P. & Miklikowska, M. (2012). Culture of Peace. In: Peter Coleman and Morton Deutsch (Ed.), The psychological components of a sustainable peace: (pp. 227-243). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture of Peace
2012 (English)In: The psychological components of a sustainable peace / [ed] Peter Coleman and Morton Deutsch, Springer, 2012, p. 227-243Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter we explore how the Culture of Peace can be and in some cases is being actualized. First, noting that the United Nations resolutions on a Culture of Peace call for shifts in values, attitudes, and behaviors, we give attention to values that are supportive of peaceful attitudes and behavior. Second, we consider the nature and flexibility of social identity and how it relates to promoting a Culture of Peace. We suggest that humans are fully capable of forming multiple social identities, and drawing upon this ability, the promotion of a global identity in addition to lower levels of social identity can facilitate the development of a Culture of Peace. Third, and not totally separate from a consideration of values and identity, we focus on the role of interdependence and cooperation in promoting a Culture of Peace. A key point is that the promotion of a Culture of Peace does not exist merely in social science theory or in utopian dreams: The creation of a Culture of Peace is already an ongoing real-world process, and we consider several examples, such as the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) and the European Union (EU) as a regional peace system, to highlight this point.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136777 (URN)978-1-4614-3555-6_12 (DOI)9781461435549 (ISBN)9781489991287 (ISBN)9781461435556 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2012). Democracy begins at home: parenting, empathy, and adolescents' support for democratic values. Åbo Akademi University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy begins at home: parenting, empathy, and adolescents' support for democratic values
2012 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Democracies are rare historically and inherently fragile.  Their existence depends on more than formal institutions or an absence of dictators and extremists. In other words, the democratic quality of a political regime requires citizens who support democratic values. To this end, it is important to understand which factors lead individuals to feel committed to a democratic creed. Although it is assumed that support for democratic values develops as a result of social learning, concrete socializing circumstances are less obvious. The classical literature on political socialization pointed to parents as a direct determinant of youth civic formation. However, in contemporary societies, few parents hold explicit goals to influence the political preferences of their children. The present study aims at advancing this discourse by assessing the direct and indirect role of parenting for the democratic commitments of adolescents.  Method: This study was conducted on two random samples. One consisted of 1,341 secondary-school students, aged 17, from three regions of Finland (South, South-West, and West). The second consisted of 678 secondary-school students, aged 16 at baseline, from the Flemish-speaking part of Belgium. The study comprised of questionnaires which were administered during regular school hours.  Results: The present study yielded some important findings. First, it showed that empathy is a good predictor of adolescents’ democratic commitments (Article I). Second, it provided evidence for the influence of supportive parenting on the development of empathy in adolescence (Article II). Third, it tested empathy as a predictor of democratic values in light of other significant variables (Article III). Fourth, it provided evidence that democratic parenting might be directly and non-directly, i.e. through adolescents’ empathic skills, related to youth support for democratic values (Article IV).  Conclusion: Overall, this study showed direct and indirect ways in which parenting might influence the democratic orientation of adolescents and gave recommendations for the democratic education of citizens. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo Akademi University, 2012. p. 44
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136812 (URN)978-952-12-2682-3 (ISBN)978-952-12-2684-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Miklikowska, M. (2012). Psychological underpinnings of democracy: empathy, authoritarianism, self-esteem, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and openness to experience as predictors of support for democratic values. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(5), 603-608
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological underpinnings of democracy: empathy, authoritarianism, self-esteem, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and openness to experience as predictors of support for democratic values
2012 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 603-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the role of individual differences for political attitudes is undisputed, the psychological deter-minants of support for democratic values received limited attention. This study aimed at incorporating a variety of measures of stable individual differences and determining their relative effect on support for democratic values as well as at testing a new predictor, i.e. normative identity style. The analysis of a sur-vey in a sample of middle adolescents (N = 1341; 16–17 year olds) showed that (a) right-wing authoritar-ianism, interpersonal trust, normative identity style, and empathy were good predictors of support for democratic values, (b) empathy and authoritarianism were the strongest predictors of democratic com-mitments, and that (c) self-esteem was not related to support for democratic values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Democratic values, Empathy, Authoritarianism, Self-esteem, Normative identity style, Interpersonal trust, Openness to experience
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136815 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.032 (DOI)000307132100012 ()
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
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