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Larson, K. W., Liedvogel, M., Addison, B., Kleven, O., Laskemoen, T., Lifjeld, J. T., . . . Bensch, S. (2014). Allelic Variation in a Willow Warbler Genomic Region Is Associated with Climate Clines. PLoS ONE, 9(5), Article ID e95252.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allelic Variation in a Willow Warbler Genomic Region Is Associated with Climate Clines
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e95252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1) that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1) allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2) these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3) the northern-allele or "altitude variant" of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios.

Keywords
Phylloscopus trochillus, local adaptation, cline
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130377 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0095252 (DOI)000335510600028 ()24788148 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Larson, K. W. & Kundisch, S. (2014). Attempted predation of Northern Hawk-owl Surnia ullula by Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus?. Ornis Svecica, 24(3-4), 165-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attempted predation of Northern Hawk-owl Surnia ullula by Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus?
2014 (English)In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 24, no 3-4, p. 165-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Predation, Surnia ulula, Falco tinnunculus
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130381 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Liedvogel, M., Larson, K. W., Lundberg, M., Gursoy, A., Wassenaar, L. I., Hobson, K. A., . . . Åkesson, S. (2014). No evidence for assortative mating within a willow warbler migratory divide. Frontiers in Zoology, 11, Article ID 52.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No evidence for assortative mating within a willow warbler migratory divide
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2014 (English)In: Frontiers in Zoology, ISSN 1742-9994, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 11, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In contact zones, genetic mixing of two taxa can be restricted by prezygotic (e.g. assortative mating) or postzygotic (lower fitness of hybrid offspring) barriers, or a combination of the two. A hybrid zone between two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus, P. t. acredula) with distinctive migratory strategies occurs in central Sweden. These subspecies exhibit differences in migratory direction and distance, resulting in geographically distinct wintering areas in Africa. The subspecies may have diverged from a common refuge after the last ice age, and neutral genetic markers are homogeneous across their range. By contrast, several phenotypic traits and genetic markers of two chromosomal regions previously identified show steep clines across the divide. The evolutionary forces that maintain this migratory divide remain unknown. Here we use plumage colour, morphology, genetic markers and feather stable nitrogen-isotopes (δ 15N) to assess if assortative mating between migratory phenotypes could be acting as a possible mechanism for keeping the two forms genetically separate and maintaining the migratory divide. We colour-ringed a willow warbler breeding population in the central part of the hybrid zone and observed the breeding population to assess phenotypic and genotypic traits of social pairs.

Keywords
hybrid zone, Nitrogen-15, Phylloscopus trochilus, Postzygotic selection, Prezygotic selection, reproductive isolation, Willow warbler
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130380 (URN)10.1186/s12983-014-0052-2 (DOI)000339204800001 ()2-s2.0-84942085765 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
De Ruyck, C., Hobson, K. A., Koper, N., Larson, K. W. & Wassenaar, L. I. (2013). An Appraisal of the Use of Hydrogen-Isotope Methods to Delineate Origins of Migratory Saw-whet Owls in North America. The Condor, 115(2), 366-374
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Appraisal of the Use of Hydrogen-Isotope Methods to Delineate Origins of Migratory Saw-whet Owls in North America
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2013 (English)In: The Condor, ISSN 00105422, 1938-5129, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Aegolius acadicus, migratory connectivity, stable isotopes, hydrogen isotopes
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130375 (URN)10.1525/cond.2013.120019 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Lundberg, M., Boss, J., Canbäck, B., Liedvogel, M., Larson, K. W., Grahn, M., . . . Wright, A. (2013). Characterisation of a transcriptome to find sequence differences between two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. BMC Genomics, 14(1), 1-11, Article ID 330.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of a transcriptome to find sequence differences between two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
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2013 (English)In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Animal migration requires adaptations in morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. Several of these traits have been shown to possess a strong heritable component in birds, but little is known about their genetic architecture. Here we used 454 sequencing of brain-derived transcriptomes from two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus to detect genes potentially underlying traits associated with migration. Results: The transcriptome sequencing resulted in 1.8 million reads following filtering steps. Most of the reads (84%) were successfully mapped to the genome of the zebra finch Taeniopygia gutatta. The mapped reads were situated within at least 12,101 predicted zebra finch genes, with the greatest sequencing depth in exons. Reads that were mapped to intergenic regions were generally located close to predicted genes and possibly located in uncharacterized untranslated regions (UTRs). Out of 85,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minimum sequencing depth of eight reads from each of two subspecies-specific pools, only 55 showed high differentiation, confirming previous studies showing that most of the genetic variation is shared between the subspecies. Validation of a subset of the most highly differentiated SNPs using Sanger sequencing demonstrated that several of them also were differentiated between an independent set of individuals of each subspecies. These SNPs were clustered in two chromosome regions that are likely to be influenced by divergent selection between the subspecies and that could potentially be associated with adaptations to their different migratory strategies. Conclusions: Our study represents the first large-scale sequencing analysis aiming at detecting genes underlying migratory phenotypes in birds and provides new candidates for genes potentially involved in migration.

Keywords
454 Transcriptome sequencing, Genetics of migration, Phylloscopus
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130374 (URN)10.1186/1471-2164-14-330 (DOI)000319226500002 ()23672489 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Larson, K. W., Liedvogel, M., Bensch, S., Åkesson, S., Wassenaar, L. I. & Hobson, K. A. (2013). Inferring the ecology of willow warblers during their winter moult by sequential stable isotope analyses of remiges. Journal of Avian Biology, 44(6), 561-566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inferring the ecology of willow warblers during their winter moult by sequential stable isotope analyses of remiges
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 561-566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a comparison of feather stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) patterns representing the habitat and diet conditions for two subspecies of willow warblers Phylloscopus trochilus that breed in parapatry, but winter in different regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Previous analyses have shown that on average winter moulted innermost primaries (P1) show subspecific differences in δ15N values, although individuals show substantial variation for both δ13C and δ15N within the subspecies. We examined whether corresponding variation in the timing of the winter moult, as reflected by consistent intra-wing correlations for individual's δ13C and δ15N values, could explain some of the previously observed isotopic variation. Further, differential subspecific adaptations to winter precipitation patterns across Africa might result in a variable degree of site fidelity or itinerancy during moult. We found no consistent trend in isotopic values from innermost to outermost primaries, thus inter-individual variation in the timing of moult does not explain the subspecific isotopic variation for P1. Patterns in wing feather δ13C and δ15N values indicated that 41% of the individuals from both subspecies shifted their diet or habitats during winter moult. Importantly, despite well-documented itinerancy in willow warblers during the winter, 59% of the individuals had feather isotope values consistent with stable use of habitats or diets during winter moult. Repeatability analyses suggest that individuals of both subspecies initiate moult in similar habitats from year-to-year while feeding on isotopically similar diets.

Keywords
Phylloscopus trochillus, feathers, stable isotopes, hydrogen isotopes, winter ecology, migratory connectivity
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130378 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00050.x (DOI)000327221300006 ()
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Larson, K. W., Smith, J. A. M., Merker, S. A. & Reitsma, L. R. (2013). Plasticity in the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) First Pre-basic Molt. North American Bird Bander, 38(1), 28-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasticity in the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) First Pre-basic Molt
2013 (English)In: North American Bird Bander, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Catharus ustulatus, moult, molt, winter ecology
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130382 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09
Wellenreuther, M., Larson, K. W. & Svensson, E. I. (2012). Climatic niche divergence or conservatism?: Environmental niches and range limits in ecologically similar damselflies. Ecology, 93(6), 1353-1366
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climatic niche divergence or conservatism?: Environmental niches and range limits in ecologically similar damselflies
2012 (English)In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 1353-1366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The factors that determine species' range limits are of central interest to biologists. One particularly interesting group comprises odonates (dragonflies and damselflies), which show large differences in secondary sexual traits and respond quickly to climatic factors, but often have minor interspecific niche differences, challenging models of niche-based species coexistence. We quantified the environmental niches at two geographic scales to understand the ecological causes of northern range limits and the coexistence of two congeneric damselflies (Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo). Using environmental niche modeling, we quantified niche divergence first across the whole geographic range in Fennoscandia, and second only in the sympatric part of this range. We found evidence for interspecific divergence along the environmental axes of temperature and precipitation across the northern range in Fennoscandia, suggesting that adaptation to colder and wetter climate might have allowed C. virgo to expand farther north than C. splendens. However, in the sympatric zone in southern Fennoscandia we found only negligible and nonsignificant niche differences. Minor niche differences in sympatry lead to frequent encounters and intense interspecific sexual interactions at the local scale of populations. Nevertheless, niche differences across Fennoscandia suggest that species differences in physiological tolerances limit range expansions northward, and that current and future climate could have large effects on the distributional ranges of these and ecologically similar insects.

Keywords
Biogeography, Calopteryx splendens, Calopteryx virgo, climate, ecological speciation, ectotherms, niche divergence, nonecological speciation, sexual selection, thermal adaptation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130370 (URN)10.1890/11-1181.1 (DOI)000305296600013 ()2-s2.0-84862297478 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Larson, K. W. (2012). Hybrid zone dynamics, assortative mating, and migratory programmes in a willow warbler migratory divide. (Doctoral dissertation). Lund, Sweden: Lund University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid zone dynamics, assortative mating, and migratory programmes in a willow warbler migratory divide
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis I will compare and contrast the two willow warbler subspecies (Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula) with differing migratory phenotypes (or "migratype") in the context of their migratory divide and hybrid zone in central Sweden. Their migratory programs differ in the direction and distance traveled during migration. The "northern" willow warblers migrate south-southeast through the Balkan Peninsula to winter in eastern Africa. The "southern" willow warbler migrates southwest through the Iberian Peninsula to winter in western Africa. In this thesis I will also explore the consequences of hybridization for these two very closely related subspecies where they meet in central Sweden. In the first paper I investigate the role of population abundance in determining the location of the hybrid zone. Specifically, is there a region of low abundance associated with the hybrid zone? Further, is the hybrid zone located on an environmental gradient which might suggest that breeding ground environmental conditions are responsible for the lower abundance? This lower abundance may reflect the unsuitability of habitats along the environmental gradient for either parental or hybrid offspring. In my second paper, I ask if there are population specific differences in their wintering moult ecology that can be elucidated from diet derived stable isotope patterns in their winter moulted primary flight feathers? The third paper addresses the important question, does assortative mating lead to reproductive isolation or do these very similar subspecies hybridize and produce offspring? In my fourth paper, I ask does local adaptation to environmental conditions, such as temperature extremes and the short growing season, in mountain populations of willow warblers explain the apparent distribution of the “northern-allele” for the AFLP derived genetic marker WW1? Finally, in the fifth paper, I conduct a detailed analysis of phenotypic traits at 50 sites across the hybrid zone, including 35 sites visited more than once. Here I ask, does lower abundances in the west of the hybrid zone predict the zone to be wider in the west than in the east? Further, using data from repeated visits to sites across the zone, we predict low repeatabilities for migratory associated traits that would suggest that high annual turn-over in migratypes occupying the zone. For future efforts to understand hybrid zone dynamics, it will be essential to develop genetic markers that allow one to separate each parental migratypes, hybrids, and back-crosses. Once genetic markers allow the identification of hybrid offspring, orientation experiments should be conducted to elucidate migratory directional preferences that would support our hypothesis that hybrids take an intermediate migratory direction to their parental migratypes. This intermediate direction could be a significant cost to hybrid fitness, as this route would require they cross the Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert at their widest points.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 2012. p. 112
Keywords
migratory divide, phenotype, willow warbler, hybrid zone, tension zone, Phylloscopus trochilus, migratype, assortative mating, migration
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology Behavioral Sciences Biology
Research subject
biology; evolutionary genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127385 (URN)978-91-7473-379-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-09 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
Hobson, K. A., Van Wilgenburg, S. L., Wassenaar, L. I. & Larson, K. W. (2012). Linking Hydrogen (δ2H) Isotopes in Feathers and Precipitation: sources of Variance and Consequences for Assignment to Isoscapes. Paper presented at 2012/04/13/07:21:58. PLoS ONE, 7(4), Article ID e35137.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking Hydrogen (δ2H) Isotopes in Feathers and Precipitation: sources of Variance and Consequences for Assignment to Isoscapes
2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e35137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tracking small migrant organisms worldwide has been hampered by technological and recovery limitations and sampling bias inherent in exogenous markers. Naturally occurring stable isotopes of H (δ2H) in feathers provide an alternative intrinsic marker of animal origin due to the predictable spatial linkage to underlying hydrologically driven flow of H isotopes into foodwebs. This approach can assess the likelihood that a migrant animal originated from a given location(s) within a continent but requires a robust algorithm linking H isotopes in tissues of interest to an appropriate hydrological isotopic spatio-temporal pattern, such as weighted-annual rainfall. However, a number of factors contribute to or alter expected isotopic patterns in animals. We present results of an extensive investigation into taxonomic and environmental factors influencing feather δ2H patterns across North America. Stable isotope data were measured from 544 feathers from 40 species and 140 known locations. For δ2H, the most parsimonious model explaining 83% of the isotopic variance was found with amount-weighted growing-season precipitation δ2H, foraging substrate and migratory strategy. This extensive H isotopic analysis of known-origin feathers of songbirds in North America and elsewhere reconfirmed the strong coupling between tissue δ2H and global hydrologic δ2H patterns, and accounting for variance associated with foraging substrate and migratory strategy, can be used in conservation and research for the purpose of assigning birds and other species to their approximate origin.

Keywords
hydrogen isotopes, mexico, migratory connectivity, molt, moult, north america
National Category
Ecology Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130366 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0035137 (DOI)000305336600086 ()22509393 (PubMedID)
Conference
2012/04/13/07:21:58
Available from: 2017-01-18 Created: 2017-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7089-524x

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