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Wiklund-Engblom, Annika, Dr
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Bengs, A., Hägglund, S. & Wiklund-Engblom, A. (2018). Applying Experience Design to Facilitate Wellbeing and Social Inclusion of Older Adults. IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s) (36), 11-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying Experience Design to Facilitate Wellbeing and Social Inclusion of Older Adults
2018 (English)In: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, no 36, p. 11-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current article addresses the issue of how to design for meaningful experiences of wellbeing and social inclusion, supported by information and communication technology, among older adults. This is done with regard to a background study conducted for the purpose of collecting end user needs in order to inform design choices. Our design approach is influenced by the theory of Experience Design, in which design should be aimed at creating specific experiences. These experiences are considered to derive from a limited number of fundamental human needs. The study is framed as design research using the methodology of user-centred design as a guide for the creative process. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 25 older adults, identifying needs of autonomy, competence, relatedness, physical thriving, security, pleasure and stimulation. Design goals were set based on these needs and three interventions were designed and implemented accordingly.

Keywords
Older adults, Social inclusion, Wellbeing, Experience Design, User-centred design, Fundamental human needs, Information and communication technology
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153805 (URN)000442784100002 ()
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Bengs, A., Hägglund, S., Wiklund-Engblom, A., Majors, J. & Ashfaq, A. (2018). Designing for social inclusion of immigrant women: The case of TeaTime. Innovation. The European Journal of Social Sciences, 31(2), 106-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for social inclusion of immigrant women: The case of TeaTime
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2018 (English)In: Innovation. The European Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1351-1610, E-ISSN 1469-8412, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 106-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present our design of a digital service supporting social inclusion among immigrant women in an ethnically and socially diverse neighbourhood of a small Finnish town. The aim is to explore experiences and perceptions as well as potential barriers and challenges for using the web-based service. The case study is framed as design research having a strong user-centred design approach. We describe the design process and present the results of a mixed-method evaluation. The results are scrutinized from the perspectives of experience design. The analysis reveals a potential to facilitate social inclusion through the fulfilment of needs related to relatedness, autonomy, competence, pleasure and stimulations as well as popularity. However, some challenges in the interface design and communication of the security and purpose of the site were identified in the study. Significant differences were also found between immigrant women and local people regarding the need for this digital service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
social inclusion, immigrant women, experience design, user-centered design, design research
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153811 (URN)10.1080/13511610.2017.1348931 (DOI)000432724200002 ()
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Engblom, A. (2018). Digital relational competence: Sensitivity and responsivity to needs of distance and co-located students. Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, 14(2), 188-200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital relational competence: Sensitivity and responsivity to needs of distance and co-located students
2018 (English)In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 188-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being relationally competent is an essential skill for teachers. This involves, for example, skills in social interaction, emotional communication, and human connection. Two key factors for relational competence are teachers’ sensitivity and responsivity to learner needs. In a distance-learning environment this can be a challenge because of the technical barriers, which often entail a lack of nonverbal cues that can guide teachers in social interactions and the orchestration of relations. In this study, nine semi-structured interviews capture the experiences of teachers in upper secondary school, in order to explore how they describe their own digital didactical design for distance courses and how they perceive that it supports students’ learning. In the qualitative content analysis of the interview data, the emphasis was placed on teachers’ digital relational competence with regard to their sensitivity and responsivity. These two factors are scrutinized in relation to six categories of student needs: emotional, cognitive-epistemic, metareflective, self-regulatory, social, and practical-logistic needs.

Keywords
distance learning, digital relational competence, learner needs, sensitivity, responsivity, digital didactical design, teachers’ experiences
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153808 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Engblom, A. & Bergström, P. (2018). Finnish teachers’ didactical design for power and control: Exploring their motives and intentions for one-to-one computing. In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?: . Paper presented at ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finnish teachers’ didactical design for power and control: Exploring their motives and intentions for one-to-one computing
2018 (English)In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction 

This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). In this research project, one didactical design represents one lesson, which is documented through classroom observations, written documentation, photographs, and audio recordings. In addition to this teacher interviews are conducted to corroborate discoveries from other data. 

The findings presented in this paper is based on 14 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. The analysis is a triangulation of findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004)from one earlier analysis of the observational data from the same Finnish substudy. The main discoveries of the first analysis revealed two clusters related to power and control as described by Berstein (2000). The first cluster involved practices described as rather traditional where the teachers make the decisions, while the second cluster involved practices described as student active where students are involved in making decisions (Bergström, submitted 2018). Regarding this issue, Laurillard and Derntl (2014) argue that one aspect of design concerns the extent to which students are allowed to take some controlin the teaching and learning process. Otherwise, they warn that the use of ICTs can simply replicate previous traditions for teaching and learning. Further, in Klein and Kleinman’s (2002) perspective on the social construction of technology the enacted didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom should be considered as a design process. In this process, powerindicates the interaction between teachers and students, the rules that order the interactions, and how other factors contribute to differences in theirrelationship. 

The concept of didactical design is used based on the European tradition of Didaktik regarding the teacher–student–content triad (Klafki, 2000). These are all relays of symbolic power and control. Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts of classification and framing were found to be helpful for analysing such relations. The concept of classification refers to power relations that emerge between objects (e.g. desks) or contexts, as either strong or weak. Strong classification, can be found in classrooms with desks organised in straight lines, whereas weak classification indicates distribution of power based on increased “disorder” (e.g. desks in groups). The concept of framing refers to the locus of control in the teachers’ narratives with regard to the selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and hierarchical between teacher-student and student-student. If framing is strong, teachers are in control, for example how fast the content shall be acquired, while weak framing indicates increased possibilities for students to affect the pace.

This project was conducted during the transition from the 2004 Finnish national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum that emphasised, among other things, digital competence. However, implementing digital devices, and in this case at a 1:1 ratio, is in many ways a challenge for the ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). It is known from earlier research that ICT-implementation needs to be pedagogically integrated in order to be of use for learning (Genlott & Grönlund, 2016). It is the teachers’ didactical design and orchestration of the classroom activities that determine the success of the 1:1 implementation in the classroom (Jahnke, Norqvist & Olsson, 2014).

The aim is to contribute to a deeper understanding of Finnish teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms. More specifically: How do the two clusters, pertaining to power and control, relate to how teachers reflect on their motives and intentions in their planning, their ideas about learning and assessment, as well as perceived changes from introducing one-to-one computing?

Method 

Fourteen semi-structured teacher interviews were conducted at two schools. These teachers (9 female; 5 male) were selected based on suggestions from the principals, because of their frequent use of one-to-one computing in their teaching. The work experience of the sample ranged between 2 and 40 years. The interview themes covered: teacher background, planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. The teachers were given the opportunity to explain their motives and intentions for the iPad integration during the observed lecture, and the researchers were able to ask questions related to these classroom practices. Thus, the interviews were similar to a retrospective ethnographic interview with elements of stimulated recall, as teachers often went back to the digital devices to show content and apps (Dempsey, 2010). Each interview were conducted by either two or three researchers, lasting approximately 60 minutes. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim.  

The purpose for conducting the teacher interviews was to be able to triangulate these data with the prior observational data. Data triangulation is used to cross-validate sources of data against each other during analysis. This is a verification against error in the research process, as multiple methods provide stronger evidence, decrease potential weaknesses of any single method (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004) and prevent biased perspectives due to methodological distortion (Hodkinson & Macleod, 2007). A true triangulation is done by integrating multiple types of data during analysis, in contrast to merely comparing findings (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). 

A qualitative content analysis was made on all interview transcripts using the QSR NVivo software. In the first phase, each meaning unit was coded separately in accordance to the themes: planning, learning, assessment, and perceptions of change. These were, furthermore, divided into a number of subcategories. During the second phase of coding, meaning condensations were made for each coded meaning unit, in order to further reduce the material (Flick, 1998/2002). The third phase consisted of an integrated data analysis, using both interview and observational data. Each of the 14 teachers were given attribute values (Bazeley, 2007) of their designated power-cluster, resulting in seven teachers in each cluster. This dichotomised classification of teachers was then correlated to the coded subcategories.

Expected results/outcomes

Not only do the teachers have to be content experts, but they also have to configure and orchestrate artefacts, environment, and people (Goodyear & Dimitriadis, 2013). Prior findings based on observational data (Bergström et al. 2017) illustrate how teachers’ arrangements of the classroom space create different privileging teaching practices. Such practices indicate how teachers’ design in practice constrained by the precondition of the classroom space. But why do they choose certain practices?

This phase of the larger Nordic study focused on triangulating interview data with observational data from the Finnish substudy. It targeted how teachers talked about their own perceptions, expectations, and attitudes towards the change the one-to-one tablet introduction had brought to their classrooms. But most importantly, it presented the opportunity to further explain differences in perceptions and motives for planning, learning, and assessment between the power-and-control-based clusters of teachers (cf. Bernstein 1990; 2000) found in the prior analysis. It is expected that these two patterns of didactical design in relation to power and control will also be visible in teachers’ reflections during the retrospective interviews.

The triangulation of data enables an examination of the subcategories of each theme. The first two phases of this second analysis of the Finnish substudy have resulted in a number of subcategories derived from the interview data. For instance, the theme Planning a lectureinclude the following subcategories: activating students, considering emotions, producing material, instructional design, iPad integration, learning goals, curriculum guidance, furnishing the room, collaboration, and providing teasers for engagement. The theme Learning includes the following subcategories: adjustment to learner needs, feedback, feed forward, focus on the learning process, peer learning, motivation, repetition, scaffolding, documentation, and students taking own initiative. The theme Assessment includes how teachers reflected on assessment criteria, students own interest, group work, holistic assessment, communicating assessment criteria to students, self-assessment, and assessing students’ class activity. 

 

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157903 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Bergström, P. & Wiklund-Engblom, A. (2018). Variation of power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Finnish teachers’ enacted didactical designs in grade 1-6. In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?: . Paper presented at ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: Finnish teachers’ enacted didactical designs in grade 1-6
2018 (English)In: ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research question and theory

This study is part of a larger Nordic research project, including a series of substudies with a common research objective of examining teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Jahnke et al., 2017). The findings presented in this paper is based on 16 classroom observations and 16 teacher interviews in grades 7-9 in Finland. One-to-one computing in K–12 education has grown rapidly worldwide through initiatives based on one laptop or tablet for each student (Islam & Grönlund, 2016). In the Nordic countries, studies on teachers’ working in one-to-one computing classrooms have been performed in Sweden (Fleischer, 2013; Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015; Tallvid, 2015, Bergström et al., 2017), in Norway (Blikstad-Balas, 2012), and in Denmark (Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson, 2014), while Finland still seems to be a blind spot on the map (Bocconi, Kampylis, & Punie, 2013). Important knowledge and understanding about Finnish teachers’ teaching in the one-to-one computing classroom is therefore missing. 

This study focuses on 16 teachers in a Finnish municipality that was among the first to implement a large-scale one-to-one computing initiative in Finland. Finnish teachers are prized for their high academic standards (Sahlberg, 2011), but also criticised for maintaining power and control by organising students in straight lines lectured by one teacher (Carlgren et al., 2006, Simola, 2005). One-to-one computing, is considered to be an innovation in the strive for modernisation of teaching and learning through increased student emancipation (Bocconi et al., 2013). The analysis presented here considers how these teachers’ in a variety of lessons demonstrate similarities and variations regarding their organisation of the classroom space as well as decisions in practice about content, pacing, and assessment. This mix of teachers’ designs of the classroom space and their enacted decisions during teaching form their didactical designs (Bergström et al., 2017). Specifically, this article analysis how Finnish teachers use of power and control across different subjects. This study aims to describe and understand how variations within, as well as, between teachers’ didactical design challenge and reproduce established teacher-student relationships. The following research question were asked: How can variations within, as well as between, different clusters of didactical design be understood in terms of power and control?

The concept of didactical design follows the European tradition of Didaktik (Klafki, 2000; Sensevy, 2012) where the teaching and learning process is problematized, for example, when considering imitative teaching in contrast to students’ active learning. Such dichotomies serve to illuminate how school environments, school subjects, teachers, students and ICTs are all relays of power and control, and how power and control is maintained, reproduced or challenged. For this study, Bernstein’s (2000, 1990) theory of material conditions of classrooms in relation to teachers’ communication in practice was found to be helpful for analysing teachers’ didactical design regarding the physical space and the enacted practice. In the material conditions of the classroom, Bernstein’s concept of classification was used to analyse power relations between objects for example, the arrangement of desks, ICTs, spaces and teacher-student relations. Depending on the degree of specialisation and insulation between objects, classification is either strong or weak. Strong classification indicates for example desks organised in lines, whereas with weak classification would desks be in groups.  Bernstein’s concept of framing highlight teachers’ communication and describes the locus of control about selection and sequence of content, pacing, evaluation and communication. If framing over selection of content is strong, it is the teacher who control such decisions, whereas if framing is weak the control is distributed to the students. Different power and control relationships give raise to different didactical designs with regard to possibilities and regulations in students learning.  

Methods

Four schools were visited twice during 2016. Classroom observations in 16 lessons (about 45minutes each) were conducted by two observers supported by one interpreter. The data comprise audio recordings of the teachers’ communication, field notes and photographs of the physical classroom space and situations. The subjects ranged from Native Language, Mathematics, Physics, English, Slojd, Geography and lessons based on thematic studies about students’ sport holiday and Scandinavia. The class size ranged from 8 to 22 students. The observations were followed up with post-lesson interviews. We asked questions that ranged from specific situations in the observed lesson, to the teachers’ experience to teach in the one-to-one computing classroom. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes.

The use of different methods made triangulations of the different data possible. Each lesson was analysed with support of a theory-oriented coding scheme. In the analysis of the didactical design of the classroom environment, power relations were interpreted from photos and field notes. The classification between categories were interpreted on a two-point scale as either strong (C+) or weak (C-). In total, we analysed seven categories of “relations between” objects: desks, the teacher’s space and the students’ space, physical learning resources and one-to-one computing resources, the selection of software applications (apps), teacher and student, student and student, and the classroom and other facilities. In the next step, focus was turned to the teachers’ communication in the audio recordings. The concepts of framing was operationalised into six categories for control: selection, sequence, pacing, evaluation, teacher-student relationship and student-student relationship. These categories were coded on a four-point scale from very strong to very weak framing (F++, F+, F- F--). The results from the classification and framing analysis made it possible to estimate and differentiate different didactical designs. The didactical design findings were then considered in relation to the post-lesson interviews. The interviews provide a richer picture of the observed practice and beyond.

Expected outcomes 

For presenting some preliminary results a typology was used to illustrate the interplay between teachers’ didactical design of the physical classroom space and teachers’ enacted practice. In order to illustrate different nuances, quantitative data illustrate the degree to which teachers organised both furniture and digital resources, while qualitative aspects are based on teachers’ communication. From the preliminary analysis we can perceive differences in the material where some lessons demonstrate power and control relationships with similarities to traditional desk teaching. One group of lessons, demonstrate a practice where some of the power and control was distributed to the students. A third group of teachers indicated didactical designs where power and control were distributed to the students to a great extent. These teachers organised the students in groups and ICT resources demonstrated the similar value as printed books. Here, the control was distributed to the students both regarding the content, but also in pacing.  

This study is relevant since digital technologies in pedagogical practice is increasing world-wide and is assumed to change teaching and learning. However, previous studies have shown that Finnish teachers’ teaching has been reported to maintain previous traditions of teaching and learning through teachers’ power and control. Based on these clash of paradigms, this study has the potential to serve as a good what happens in Finnish classrooms when one-to-one computing is introduced.

National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157900 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2018 “Inclusion and Exclusion, Resources for Educational Research?”, 3 – 7 September, Free University Bolzano, Italy.
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Bengs, A., Wiklund-Engblom, A., Majors, J., Teirilä, M. & Oraviita, T. (2016). Cross-Cultural Digital Design: Lessons Learned from the Case of Image TestLab. In: Christopher M. Schmidt (Ed.), Crossmedia-Kommunikation in kulturbedingten Handlungsräumen: Mediengerechte Anwendung und zielgruppenspezifische Ausrichtung (pp. 285-303). Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Cultural Digital Design: Lessons Learned from the Case of Image TestLab
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2016 (English)In: Crossmedia-Kommunikation in kulturbedingten Handlungsräumen: Mediengerechte Anwendung und zielgruppenspezifische Ausrichtung / [ed] Christopher M. Schmidt, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden , 2016, p. 285-303Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2016
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153883 (URN)10.1007/978-3-658-11076-5 (DOI)978-3-658-11075-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06
Ghellal, S., Wiklund-Engblom, A., Morrison, A. & Obal, D. (2016). Transmedia Perspectives. In: A. Lugmayr, & C. Dal Zotto (Ed.), Media Convergence Handbook: Cross-disciplinary viewpoint towards convergence (pp. 309-325). springer verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmedia Perspectives
2016 (English)In: Media Convergence Handbook: Cross-disciplinary viewpoint towards convergence / [ed] A. Lugmayr, & C. Dal Zotto, springer verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2016, p. 309-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
springer verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2016
Series
Media, Business and Innovation
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153880 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-54487-3 (DOI)978-3-642-54487-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06
Wiklund-Engblom, A., Staffans, S., Markko, S. & Smirnoff, M. (2016). Transmedia storytelling for industry promotion: The case of the Energy Ambassador of EnergyVaasa, Finland. In: Christopher M. Schmidt (Ed.), Crossmedia-Kommunikation in kulturbedingten Handlungsräumen: Mediengerechte Anwendung und zielgruppenspezifische Ausrichtung (pp. 339-360). Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmedia storytelling for industry promotion: The case of the Energy Ambassador of EnergyVaasa, Finland
2016 (English)In: Crossmedia-Kommunikation in kulturbedingten Handlungsräumen: Mediengerechte Anwendung und zielgruppenspezifische Ausrichtung / [ed] Christopher M. Schmidt, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden , 2016, p. 339-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiesbaden: Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2016
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153882 (URN)10.1007/978-3-658-11076-5 (DOI)978-3-658-11075-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06
Bengs, A., Hägglund, S., Wiklund-Engblom, A. & Staffans, S. (2015). Designing for Suburban Social Inclusion: A Case of Geo-Located Storytelling. Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal, 25, 85-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for Suburban Social Inclusion: A Case of Geo-Located Storytelling
2015 (English)In: Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal, Vol. 25, p. 85-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article showcases a digital solution for strengthening social inclusion and well-being of senior suburban residents of a socially diverse Finnish town. The study is framed as design research where research is conducted in order to feed into a design process. A background study was first conducted in order to identify the target group’s needs, abilities, and attitudes towards the neighbourhood. The results revealed positive attitudes towards the area and the need for relatedness, autonomy, competence, pleasure and stimulation, physical thriving and security. Following a User-Centered Design process we based our design choices on these results and developed a local geocaching solution incorporating storytelling. The aim was to encourage senior citizens to socialize, be physically active and to experience the local urban place. An interview-based evaluation with older adults (n=6) combined with an analysis of online cache log data, showed positive experiences of the solution.

National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153884 (URN)
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Engblom, A. (2015). Designing new learning experiences?: exploring corporate e-learners’ self-regulated learning. (Doctoral dissertation). Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing new learning experiences?: exploring corporate e-learners’ self-regulated learning
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The context of this study is corporate e-learning, with an explicit focus on how digital learning design can facilitate self-regulated learning (SRL). The field of e-learning is growing rapidly. An increasing number of corporations use digital technology and elearning for training their work force and customers. E-learning may offer economic benefits, as well as opportunities for interaction and communication that traditional teaching cannot provide. However, the evolving variety of digital learning contexts makes new demands on learners, requiring them to develop strategies to adapt and cope with novel learning tools. This study derives from the need to learn more about learning experiences in digital contexts in order to be able to design these properly for learning.

The research question targets how the design of an e-learning course influences participants’ self-regulated learning actions and intentions. SRL involves learners’ ability to exercise agency in their learning. Micro-level SRL processes were targeted by exploring behaviour, cognition, and affect/motivation in relation to the design of the digital context. Two iterations of an e-learning course were tested on two groups of participants (N=17). However, the exploration of SRL extends beyond the educational design research perspective of comparing the effects of the changes to the course designs. The study was conducted in a laboratory with each participant individually. Multiple types of data were collected. However, the results presented in this thesis are based on screen observations (including eye tracking) and video-stimulated recall interviews. These data were integrated in order to achieve a broad perspective on SRL.

The most essential change evident in the second course iteration was the addition of feedback during practice and the final test. Without feedback on actions there was an observable difference between those who were instruction-directed and those who were self-directed in manipulating the context and, thus, persisted whenever faced with problems. In the second course iteration, including the feedback, this kind of difference was not found. Feedback provided the tipping point for participants to regulate their learning by identifying their knowledge gaps and to explore the learning context in a targeted manner.

Furthermore, the course content was consistently seen from a pragmatic perspective, which influenced the participants’ choice of actions, showing that real life relevance is an important need of corporate learners. This also relates to assessment and the consideration of its purpose in relation to participants’ work situation. The rigidity of the multiple choice questions, focusing on the memorisation of details, influenced the participants to adapt to an approach for surface learning. It also caused frustration in cases where the participants’ epistemic beliefs were incompatible with this kind of assessment style. Triggers of positive and negative emotions could be categorized into four levels: personal factors, instructional design of content, interface design of context, and technical solution. In summary, the key design choices for creating a positive learning experience involve feedback, flexibility, functionality, fun, and freedom.

The design of the context impacts regulation of behaviour, cognition, as well as affect and motivation. The learners’ awareness of these areas of regulation in relation to learning in a specific context is their ability for design-based epistemic metareflection. I describe this metareflection as knowing how to manipulate the context behaviourally for maximum learning, being metacognitively aware of one’s learning process, and being aware of how emotions can be regulated to maintain volitional control of the learning situation. Attention needs to be paid to how the design of a digital learning context supports learners’ metareflective development as digital learners. Every digital context has its own affordances and constraints, which influence the possibilities for micro-level SRL processes. Empowering learners in developing their ability for design-based epistemic metareflection is, therefore, essential for building their digital literacy in relation to these affordances and constraints.

It was evident that the implementation of e-learning in the workplace is not unproblematic and needs new ways of thinking about learning and how we create learning spaces. Digital contexts bring a new culture of learning that demands attitude change in how we value knowledge, measure it, define who owns it, and who creates it. Based on the results, I argue that digital solutions for corporate learning ought to be built as an integrated system that facilitates socio-cultural connectivism within the corporation. The focus needs to shift from designing static e-learning material to managing networks of social meaning negotiation as part of a holistic corporate learning ecology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2015. p. 254
Keywords
learning experience, digital learning, e-learning, educational design research, corporate e-learning
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153879 (URN)978-951-765-792-1 (ISBN)978-951-765-793-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-08-28, 10:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
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