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Wahlström, ViktoriaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4656-7606
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Wahlström, V., Bergman, F., Öhberg, F., Eskilsson, T., Olsson, T. & Slunga-Järvholm, L. (2019). Effects of a multicomponent physical activity promoting program on sedentary behavior, physical activity and body measures: a longitudinal study in different office types. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 45(5), 493-504
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a multicomponent physical activity promoting program on sedentary behavior, physical activity and body measures: a longitudinal study in different office types
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 493-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent program promoting physical activity on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and body measures, when relocating from cell offices to either a flex or cell office.

Methods: The Active Office Design (AOD) study is a longitudinal non-randomized controlled study performed in a municipality in northern Sweden. A subsample of 86 participants were randomly recruited from the AOD study to objectively measure sedentary behavior and physical activity, using ActivPAL and ActiGraph, before and after relocation to the two different office types. The multicomponent program promoting physical activity was performed in both offices. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models.

Results: Eighteen months after relocation, the total number of steps per work day increased by 21% in the flex office and 3% in the cell office group, compared to baseline. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during work hours increased by 42% in the flex office group and 19% in the cell office group. No changes were seen regarding sitting time at work. Small additive effects for walking and MVPA were seen for both groups during non-work time. Weight increased in the flex office group.

Conclusions: This long-term study shows that a multicomponent workplace intervention can lead to increased walking time, steps, and MVPA in a flex compared to a cell office. Small additive increases of physical activity were seen during non-work time in both groups. More long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Association of Occupational Safety and Health (NOROSH), 2019
Keywords
activity-based work, body measure, flex office, health promotion, intervention, longitudinal study, occupational health, occupational health, office worker, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sitting, workplace
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157427 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3808 (DOI)000484571700009 ()30860269 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071742262 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, V. (2019). Interventions for increased physical activity among office workers. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interventions for increased physical activity among office workers
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The positive association between physical activity (PA) and health is well established. Technical developments in modern life have created major changes in our societies and working life, and a growing body of research has identified sedentary behavior (SB) as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer as well as for premature mortality. To promote health, it is important to find ways to decrease SB and incorporate PA in office settings, for example, by using new office designs and behavioral interventions.

 

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate two workplace interventions among office workers to determine if these led to increased PA and reduced SB, and to describe underlying factors behind these results.

 

The thesis is based on two workplace interventions. The first intervention was the Inphact treadmill study, a 13-month randomized controlled trial where treadmill workstations were installed and participants were instructed to use the treadmill for at least one hour per workday. The second intervention was the Active Office Design (AOD) study. This study included a multicomponent PA promoting program, implemented in parallel with an office relocation to either traditional cell offices or to a flex office with activity-based work (ABW). The two groups in the AOD study were followed from 6 months before relocation to 18 months after. 

 

Objectively measured data for SB, PA, and body measurements were collected in both studies. In the Inphact treadmill study, body composition, metabolic outcomes, self-reported energy and stress, and depression and anxiety scores were also measured. In the AOD study, measurements of health and lifestyle, musculoskeletal disorders, workload, work tasks, utilization of possibilities to be active at work, and perceptions of the performed PA promoting program were assessed via questionnaires. In addition, interview data were collected via focus groups and individual interviews. Linear mixed models were used for the main statistical analyses of the quantitative data. To explore the factors that influence SB and PA at work we combined factor analysis of mixed data with multiple linear regression.Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and a deductive approach to a process evaluation model. 

 

In both study populations, sitting time was low and stand­ing time was high already at baseline, compared to other studies on office workers. In the Inphact treadmill study, the intervention group showed increased walking time during workdays compared to the control group for all follow-up measurements. At the same time, a decrease in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was observed in both the intervention and control groups during leisure time. No intervention effects were seen on body measurements, body composition, metabolic outcomes, stress, or anxiety during the treadmill intervention. 

 

In the AOD study, employees relocated to flex offices increased their walking time and MVPA during work hours to a greater extent than those relocated to cell offices, but neither group changed the amount of time spent sitting at work. Contrary to the Inphact treadmill study, no compensatory effects were seen during leisure time. The exploratory analysis resulted in six employee character-types, where the “harmonic and healthy” and “engaged with high workload” tended to sit more and to stand less, while the character type with “high BMI, creative and collaborative work” tended to sit less and stand more. The process evaluation of the intervention revealed a strong culture to encourage PA within the organization and that the intervention was supported by management. The timing of the program was questioned, and activities to support the relocation to the flex office with ABW were requested. Social acceptance for standing and walking at work increased, although the need for the intervention was debated due to the strong culture of facilitating PA at work already in place prior to the study.

 

In conclusion, we showed long-term increases in PA were achieved in office workers, but the changes did not lead to improvements in body measurements and metabolic balance during the follow-up period. The two studies showed conflicting results regarding compensatory effects during leisure. Participants in the Inphact treadmill study decreased their MVPA during leisure, while no compensatory effects were seen in the AOD-study. Our results suggest a possible ceiling effect for the amount sitting time can be reducedin office workers, and that SB and PA in offices is influenced by many factors, such as organizational culture, physical environment, work tasks, work load and physical comfort. Together, the studies in this thesis confirm the importance of carefully tailored worksite interventions for decreasing SB and increasing PA at work.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 69
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2053
Keywords
physical activity, sedentary behavior, office workers, office design, intervention, treadmill workstation, objective measurements
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164709 (URN)978-91-7855-131-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-22, Hörsal B, 9 trappor, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-01 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, V., Bergman, F., Öhberg, F., Stenlund, T., Olsson, T. & Slunga-Järvholm, L. (2018). A longitudinal study of physical activity in different office types. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(10), S62-S62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A longitudinal study of physical activity in different office types
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 15, no 10, p. S62-S62Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Kinetics, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152984 (URN)000446516100206 ()
Funder
AFA Insurance
Note

Supplement: 1

Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Bergman, F., Wahlström, V., Wennberg, P., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Sörlin, A., Öhberg, F. & Olsson, T. (2018). Increasing Physical Activity In Office Workers - An RCT Of Treadmill Workstations. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 31, 2018, Minneapolis, MN. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(5), 47-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing Physical Activity In Office Workers - An RCT Of Treadmill Workstations
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2018 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 47-47Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Our primary hypothesis was that an intervention with treadmill workstations would increase time spent walking. Secondary hypotheses were a decrease in time spent sitting with a concomitant increase in time spent standing and in light intensity physical activity (LPA) leading to positive effects on body measurements and body composition.

METHODS: The intervention group received a treadmill workstation at their office desk during 13 months. Daily time spent sitting, standing and walking and number of steps was measured with activPAL®. Daily time in LPA and MVPA was measured with Actigraph®. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured according to standardized protocols. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was used to estimate body composition. Mixed models was used for the statistical analysis, with group, day of week (weekday/ weekend), time point and gender as fixed effects and age as a covariate. p<0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: Eighty participants were included. The intervention group significantly increased their time spent walking at all follow-ups, with a difference at 13 months of 22 minutes (p<0.01) and 1645 steps per day (p<0.05), respectively, versus controls. Concomitantly, they decreased their MVPA with 13 minutes per day (p<0.001) at weekdays at 13 months versus baseline. We also found a decrease in LPA with 19 minutes per day (p<0.05), and of 17 minutes per day for MVPA (p<0.001) at 13 months versus baseline at weekends. The control group increased their time spent sitting with 25 minutes per day (p<0.05) and decreased the time spent standing with 35 minutes per day at weekdays (p<0.001) compared to baseline. There was also a decrease in LPA with 14 minutes per day (p<0.01) and in MVPA with 6 minutes per day (p<0.01) versus baseline during weekdays, with a decrease in sitting time with 36 minutes (p<0.05) at weekends. There were no significant changes in body measurements or body composition.

CONCLUSION: It is possible to increase daily walking time by introducing treadmill workstations at offices. A decreased MVPA within the intervention group may contribute to lack of effects on body measurements and body composition. It is therefore important that future interventions aim at both reducing sedentary time as well as increasing, or at least remaining, MVPA levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156624 (URN)000456870500144 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Sports-Medicine (ACSM), MAY 31, 2018, Minneapolis, MN
Note

Supplement: 1

Meeting Abstract: 256

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Pettersson-Strömbäck, A., Bodin Danielsson, C., Nordin, M., Öhrn, M., Harder, M., Olsson, T., . . . Slunga-Järvholm, L. (2018). Slutrapport från AKTIKON-PROJEKTET i Örnsköldsviks kommun: Arbetsmiljö, fysisk aktivitet, hälsa och produktivitet i aktivitetsbaserad kontorsmiljö – en kontrollerad studie i Örnsköldsviks kommun. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slutrapport från AKTIKON-PROJEKTET i Örnsköldsviks kommun: Arbetsmiljö, fysisk aktivitet, hälsa och produktivitet i aktivitetsbaserad kontorsmiljö – en kontrollerad studie i Örnsköldsviks kommun
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Projektet Aktivitetsbaserat Kontor (AktiKon) har följt och utvärderat en förändringsprocess i Örnsköldsviks kommun där tjänstemännen i kommunen flyttade från cellkontor till antingen ett aktivitetsbaserat kontor (AB-kontor) eller ett cellkontor. Syftet med forskningsprojektet var att studera effekter på arbetsmiljö, fysisk aktivitet, hälsa och produktivitet i aktivitetsbaserad kontorsmiljö och kunna jämföra med fortsatt arbete i cellkontor. Mätningar med enkäter, fokusgruppsintervjuer, gåturer och observationer utfördes 6 mån före flytt och 6 respektive 18 månader efter flytt. Individuella intervjuer av personer med upplevd funktionsnedsättning utfördes ca 10 månader efter flytt. Rörelsemätningar utfördes vid fem olika tillfällen under flyttprocessen.

I denna rapport har vi valt att redovisa enkätresultat från anställda som vi har kunnat följa över tid, d.v.s. individer där vi har resultat från enkät besvarad före flytt och från minst ett tillfälle efter flytt. Den ursprungliga studiepopulationen som studerades med denna metod bestod från början av 374 anställda och vid den sista uppföljningen, 18 månader efter flytt, av 152 anställda i AB-kontoret och 63 i cellkontoret. De två grupperna som flyttade till olika kontorsmiljöer var inte helt jämförbara. Exempelvis var det fler män och chefer som flyttade till AB-kontoret och yrkesgrupperna var inte heller lika, men alla som ingick i projektet var tjänstemän inom samma kommun.

De som flyttade till AB-kontoret upplevde den nya kontorsmiljön som estetiskt tilltalande och luftkvaliteten god. De som flyttade till nya cellkontor hade utifrån kvalitativa intervjuer inte en lika positiv uppfattning vad gäller kontorets design och inredning.

Arbetsbelastningen och olika typer av krav såg lika ut över tid för respektive grupp. Det var vid 18 månader efter flytt ingen skillnad jämfört med före flytt i hälsofrämjande arbetsfaktorer undersökta med WEMS-instrumentet (Work Experience Measurement Scale) för de som flyttat till AB-kontor. Det var inte heller någon skillnad över tid i jämförelse med de som flyttat till cellkontor. Datorstödet upplevdes mycket positivt av de som flyttade till AB-kontoret och de blev något mer nöjda än de som flyttade till cellkontor. Det fanns i AB-kontoret inte någon säker skillnad i upplevelse av samarbete mellan olika arbetsgrupper eller inom hela organisationen vid 18 månader efter flytt jämfört med utgångsläget och inte heller någon säker skillnad över tid jämfört med cellkontoret. De som flyttade till AB-kontor rapporterade efter flytten en ökad störning av ljud och besvär av bristande avskildhet. Man upplevde i genomsnitt en lägre produktivitet i AB-kontoret efter flytt och det fanns en skillnad mellan de två kontorstyperna över tid.

Cheferna var generellt nöjda med att arbeta i AB-kontor och de upplevde inte någon minskad produktivitet vid övergång till AB-kontor. I genomsnitt blev det emellertid en minskad nöjdhet med kontorets utformning i gruppen som flyttade till AB-kontor. Nöjdheten med AB-kontoret varierade beroende på yrke och typ av arbetsuppgifter. De som hade mycket enskilt och koncentrationskrävande datorarbete upplevde mindre nöjdhet efter flytt och angav att de helst ville arbeta i cellkontor om de fick välja. De som arbetade mycket i grupp, behövde vara idérika och ofta diskuterade med kollegor föredrog att arbeta i AB-kontor. Bland dem som helst ville arbeta i cellkontor fanns det en ökad förekomst av problem med stress, långvarig utmattning och psykiska besvär.

Det framkom ökade problem med koncentrationen hos de som flyttade till AB-kontor. Det fanns däremot inga säkra skillnader över tid mellan grupperna vad gäller skattning av allmän hälsa och förekomst av andra typer av besvär.

Redan före flytten hade båda grupperna tillgång till höj- och sänkbara bord och det var vanligt att arbeta stående under en rätt stor del av arbetsdagen. Efter flytten ökade tiden i gående och antal steg något i AB-kontoret jämfört med cellkontoret. I AB-kontoret fanns tillgång till gå-band, men dessa användes endast av ett fåtal anställda. Den centralt belägna öppna trappan var omtyckt och användes mycket.

Sammanfattningsvis visar studien att nöjdhet, preferens och produktivitet i AB-kontor varierar mycket beroende på vilka arbetsuppgifter man har. AB-kontoret fungerar särskilt bra för personer med ledningsuppdrag. För att AB-kontoret ska kunna fungera bra även för personer med funktionsnedsättning måste det finnas system för att fånga upp individuella problem och möjliggöra anpassningar vid behov. Detta gäller särskilt vid psykiska besvär och kognitiva svårigheter. Det är angeläget att det i AB-kontoret finns tillgång till stödytor och resurser i tillräcklig omfattning för alla de olika arbetsuppgifter som ska utföras.

En viktig erfarenhet i projektet är betydelsen av att kunna beskriva den kontext som förändringen sker i. Genom att göra en processutvärdering har det funnits möjlighet att på ett adekvat sätt tolka och förstå de effekter som framkom vid övergång till AB-kontor.

Framgångsfaktorer vid övergång till AB-kontor är noggrann kartläggning och analys före flytt, samverkan, delaktighet, överenskomna regler och förhållningssätt, och övergripande rutiner som inkluderar hela kontoret för det fortsatta arbetsmiljöarbetet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 65
Series
Yrkes- och miljömedicin rapporterar, ISSN 1654-7314 ; 2018:2
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148549 (URN)
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-09-19Bibliographically approved
Bergman, F., Wahlström, V., Stomby, A., Otten, J., Lanthén, E., Renklint, R., . . . Olsson, T. (2018). Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health, 3(11), Article ID e523-e535.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial
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2018 (English)In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time.

Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden. We included people who were aged 40-67 years, had sedentary work tasks, and had a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. After the baseline measurement, we stratified participants by their BMI (25-30 kg/m2 and >30 to 40 kg/m2); subsequently, an external statistician randomly assigned these participants (1:1) to either the intervention group (who received treadmill workstations for optional use) or the control group (who continued to work at their sit-stand desks as usual). Participants in the intervention group received reminders in boosting emails sent out to them at four occasions during the study period. Researchers were masked to group assignment until after analysis of the primary outcome. After the baseline measurement, participants were not masked to group belongings. The primary outcome was total daily walking time at weekdays and weekends, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 13 months with the accelerometer activPAL (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK), which was worn on the thigh of participants for 24 h a day for 7 consecutive days. We used an intention-to-treat approach for our analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997970, and is closed to new participants.

Findings: Between Nov 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, a total of 80 participants were recruited and enrolled (n=40 in both the intervention and control groups). Daily walking time during total time awake at weekdays increased between baseline and 13 months by 18 min (95% CI 9 to 26) in the intervention group and 1 min (-7 to 9) in the control group (difference 22 min [95% CI 7 to 37], pinteraction=0·00045); for weekend walking, the change from baseline to 13 months was 5 min (-8 to 18) in the intervention group and 8 min (-5 to 21) in the control group (difference -1 min [-19 to 17]; pinteraction=0·00045). Neither measure met our predetermined primary outcome of 30 min difference in total walking time between the intervention and control group, so the primary outcome of the trial was not met. One adverse event was reported in a participant who accidently stepped on their Achilles tendon.

Interpretation: In a sedentary work environment, treadmill workstations result in a statistically significant but smaller-than-expected increase in daily walking time. Future studies need to investigate how increasing physical activity at work might have potentially compensatory effects on non-work activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Lancet Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152709 (URN)10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30163-4 (DOI)000451514600013 ()30322782 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, V., Fjellman-Wiklund, A., Harder, M., Slunga-Järvholm, L. & Stenlund, T.Implementing a Physical Activity promoting program in a flex-office - a process evaluation with a mixed methods design.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing a Physical Activity promoting program in a flex-office - a process evaluation with a mixed methods design
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164706 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-31
Wahlström, V., Olsson, D., Öhberg, F., Olsson, T. & Slunga-Järvholm, L.Underlying factors explaining sedentary behavior and physical activity among office workers - an exploratory analysis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Underlying factors explaining sedentary behavior and physical activity among office workers - an exploratory analysis
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164703 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-31
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4656-7606

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