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Title [sv]
Främlingsfientlighet i ett föränderligt Europa.
Title [en]
Anti-immigrant attitudes in a changing Europe.
Abstract [sv]
Projektets syfte är att undersöka förändringar i attityder gentemot invandrare i Europa. Genom att analysera konsekvenserna av ekonomiska, demografiska och politiska förändringar inom och mellan länder avser vi förklara hur attityder till invandrare har utvecklats, generellt och i specifika grupper. Detta är viktigt då vi idag vet mycket lite om följderna av den senaste tidens utveckling med ekonomisk kris, politiska framgångar för främlingsfientliga partier och förändrad befolkningsstruktur. Trots att tidigare forskning identifierar sådana faktorer som viktiga för attityder gentemot invandrare saknas en genomgripande analys av dessa dynamiska processer. Med grupphotsteorin som teoretisk utgångspunkt studerar vi hur mönster av stabilitet/förändring i attityder relaterar till bredare förändringar i ekonomi, politik och demografi samt hur olika grupper (baserat på ålder, social klass, politiska preferenser etc.) reagerar på dessa förändringar. För att kunna genomföra analyserna använder vi oss av flernivåanalys samt av högkvalitativa survey och makro data. Förbättringar i datatillgång möjliggör en utvidgning av såväl tidsperspektivet som av urvalen vilket innebär att vi nu kan genomföra analyser som tidigare inte var möjliga. Detta kommer att leda till fördjupad förståelse, inte bara för hur attityder gentemot invandrare utvecklas under specifika omständigheter, utan också för främlingsfientlighet i sig ? och i förlängningen för hur sådana attityder kan motverkas.
Abstract [en]
The aim of this project is to examine changes in attitudes towards immigrants in Europe. By analyzing the effects of economic, demographic and political developments within as well as across countries, we will explain general and group-specific trends in anti-immigrant attitudes. A comprehensive analysis of this dynamic process does not exist. Although it is not a dynamic theory in its original form, group threat theory serves as the theoretical basis for the proposed research that seeks to explain between and within country change. We examine how patterns of stability/change relate to broader economic, political, and demographic developments in society, taking into account that different groups may react differently to these developments. To carry out the analyses, we utilize high quality survey data, macro indicators, and state of the art multi-level modelling to capture change. Recent improvements in data availability make it possible to expand the time frame, increase the sample size, and therefore perform far more comprehensive analyses than found in earlier scholarship. Doing so will not only enhance our understanding of how anti-immigrant attitudes change over time given specific circumstances, but also improve our general understanding of anti-immigrant attitudes ?and by extension, of how such attitudes can be reduced.
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A., Bohman, A. & Fors Connolly, F. (2019). A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference. Social Indicators Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference
2019 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

Keywords
tolerance, prejudice, SEM, survey
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162606 (URN)10.1007/s11205-019-02176-y (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-10-09
Eger, M. A. & Valdez, S. (2019). From radical right to neo-nationalist. European Political Science, 18(3), 379-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From radical right to neo-nationalist
2019 (English)In: European Political Science, ISSN 1680-4333, E-ISSN 1682-0983, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 379-399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we investigate the ideology of the populist radical right (PRR) and the extent to which its political message has changed over time. In doing so, we also judge the usefulness of the PRR-tag. Like seminal scholarship on these parties, we contend that both economic and social positions are relevant for contemporary radical right parties. Further, we argue that contemporary parties’ stances are indicative of a nationalist ideology. Using the Manifesto Project Dataset, we investigate radical right policy preferences between 1970 and 2015. Results indicate that right-wing economic stances are more prevalent prior to the twenty-first century and that radical right parties increasingly make economically leftist claims. Results also demonstrate that radical right parties are not always the farthest to right in national political spaces. Further, we show that contemporary parties make nationalist claims. Indeed, nationalism not only increasingly characterizes these parties but also increasingly distinguishes them from other major party families, whose average positions over time are globalist. We argue that contemporary radical right parties are better conceptualized and described as neo-nationalist, a label consistent with both their social and economic positions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Euroscepticism, Extreme right, Extreme right-wing populist, Immigration, Radical right, Nationalism, Populist radical right
National Category
Sociology Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
political science; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143789 (URN)10.1057/s41304-018-0160-0 (DOI)000482388300002 ()2-s2.0-85046133097 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Werner, L. (2019). It's who you know and what you know: exploring the relationship between education and prejudice in adolescence. (Licentiate dissertation). Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It's who you know and what you know: exploring the relationship between education and prejudice in adolescence
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous studies have consistently identified an association between higher levels of education and lower levels of anti-immigrant sentiment, but the underlying reasons for this relationship remain unclear. Therefore, this research aims to help explain why education matters for attitudes toward immigrants. This thesis consists of two studies, where in I examine the role of two features of education, specifically the aquistition of knowledge and social relationships.

In the first study, I analyze how two aspects of teaching in schools are associated with anti-immigrant sentiment. I examine education as a means to knowledge by investigating whether the content of education, such as critical thinking and multicultural education, is inversely related to students' prejudice. I also look into the certification of teachers and whether this has a similar effect.

In the second study, I investigate the school as an arena for social interaction and examine the relationship between outgroup contact and prejudiced attitudes. Previous research has found that outgroup contact, especially contact in the form of outgroup friendship, is effective in reducing prejudice. Based on these previous findings, I study how the Secondary Transfer Effect (STE) of friendship with a specific outgroup member is associated with attitudes towards other ethnic or racial groups.

Method: The two studies rely on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish high school students (aged 16-18) administered by 'Forum för levande historia' (Forum for living history) and Statistics Sweden during the 2009-2010 academic year. Additionally, survey participants' responses are matched to registry data. This thesis also uses multilevel (MLM) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models.

Results: Results show that both aspects of education are correlated with lower levels of anti-immigrant sentiment. The first study, in which education is a means to knowledge, demonstrates that education focused on critical thinking and multiculturalism are negatively correlated with anti-immigrant sentiment. Furthermore, results show that more exposure to teachings about xenophobia and racism is associated with less prejudice. However, when controlling for exposure to critical thinking, as well as learning about religions and cultures, the results show that exposure to learning about xenophobia and racism are no longer significant. Moreover, there is a negative association between exposure to teachers with a teaching certification or teaching degree and prejudice.

Results from the second study, in which the school functions as an arena for social interaction, shows that positive attitudes associated with intergroup friendship not only generalize to the ethnic outgroup of that friend but, more importantly, also to other secondary outgroups. STEs are most frequently found where boundaries between ingroups and outgroups are perceived to be the thickest. Thus, the presence of STEs appears to be group-specific. Previous research on perceived social distance in Sweden and other countries help shed light on these findings.

In summary, the results of this thesis provide evidence of two different complimentary accounts of the negative relationship between education and prejudice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 50
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 1104-2508 ; 81
Keywords
anti-immigrant attitudes, education, critical thinking, multicultural education, teacher qualification, intergroup contact theory, secondary transfer effects, friendship
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158134 (URN)978-91-7855-053-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-05-03, Nvbh 1031, Umeå University, Umeå, 15:55 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Bohman, A., Hjerm, M. & Eger, M. A. (2019). Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence. Frontiers in Sociology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, this literature has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. In this study, we combine these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. We rely on five waves of a Swedish panel of adolescents, ages 13-22. Results show an association between political discussion and prejudice over time, and that this relationship increases as adolescents grow older. Results also demonstrate that the effect of political discussions depends on the level of prejudice in one’s peer network. Discussion with low prejudice friends is associated with lower levels of prejudice over time, while political discussion with high prejudice peers is not significantly related to attitudes.

Keywords
prejudice, longitudinal, anti-immigrant, adolescent, discussion, political
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163463 (URN)10.3389/fsoc.2019.00070 (DOI)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0446:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-24
Mitchell, J. (2019). Prejudice in the classroom: A longitudinal analysis of anti-immigrant attitudes. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42(9), 1514-1533
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prejudice in the classroom: A longitudinal analysis of anti-immigrant attitudes
2019 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1514-1533Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses how the classroom context contributes to attitude change in adolescence. By analysing the relationship that the primary school classroom context has on anti-immigrant attitudes over time, it addresses the single factor fallacy that has troubled previous research on classrooms, which has largely tested the contact hypothesis. The dataset includes 849 participants over five-time points from 2010 to 2015. Findings show that over time individual’s anti-immigrant attitudes increased in classrooms with a higher average level of anti-immigrant sentiment net of the effect of classroom heterogeneity. However, this finding was true only while students were still enrolled in the same class over the first three waves of the study. After students entered high school, the classroom/time interaction effect disappears, suggesting that other contextual influences take over. This article highlights the crucial importance of classroom context on attitude development in adolescence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
anti-immigrant attitudes, classroom, context effects, contact hypothesis, longitudinal analysis
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153238 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2018.1493209 (DOI)000469244300007 ()2-s2.0-85049963588 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775: 1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. (2019). The return of nationalism and the rise of the radical right. In: William Allchorn (Ed.), Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR yearbook 2018/2019 (pp. 41-44). Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The return of nationalism and the rise of the radical right
2019 (English)In: Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR yearbook 2018/2019 / [ed] William Allchorn, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019, p. 41-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019
National Category
Sociology Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159200 (URN)978-3-8382-1326-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. & Valdez, S. (2019). The rise of neo-nationalism. In: Pieter Bevelander & Ruth Wodak (Ed.), Europe at the crossroads: confronting populist, nationalist, and global challenges (pp. 113-134). Nordic Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rise of neo-nationalism
2019 (English)In: Europe at the crossroads: confronting populist, nationalist, and global challenges / [ed] Pieter Bevelander & Ruth Wodak, Nordic Academic Press, 2019, p. 113-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Support for Western European radical right parties has increased in recent years, prompting the need for new research on these parties. Especially important are studies that investigate their ideology and how it has changed over time. After describing their recent electoral gains at the national and European levels, we make the case that neo-nationalism—a form of nationalism occurring when nation-state boundaries are settled, but perceived to be under threat—is the underlying ideology of contemporary radical right parties. Analyses of Manifesto Project data show that contemporary parties increasingly make nationalist claims; indeed, the issues most important to these parties are consistent with the notion that the sovereignty and autonomy of modern nation-states are under threat from external forces (Eger & Valdez 2015; 2018). When framing their opposition to globalization, supranational organizations, and multiculturalism, they cite negative economic, sociocultural, and political consequences for the nation-state. Our analyses also show that nationalism not only increasingly characterizes radical right parties, but also distinguishes them from other major party families.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordic Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
radical right, nationalism
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159278 (URN)978-91-88909-18-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Swedish Research Council, 2018-05170
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Eger, M. A. & Hjerm, M. (2019). The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains. In: William Allchorn (Ed.), Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 (pp. 135-138). Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sweden Democrats remain deeply unpopular despite making gains
2019 (English)In: Tracking the rise of the radical right globally: CARR Yearbook 2018/2019 / [ed] William Allchorn, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019, p. 135-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2019
National Category
Sociology Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159202 (URN)978-3-8382-1326-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Valdez, S. & Eger, M. A. (2018). From radical right to neo-nationalist: Danish party politics, 1973-2011. The Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From radical right to neo-nationalist: Danish party politics, 1973-2011
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research note provides a case study illustrating cross-national trends reported in recent research on the radical right. Using party manifesto data, we examine Denmark from 1973- 2011 and find that the radical right has moved toward economic leftism and social conservatism, creating a cleavage within the party family over time. Furthermore, nationalist claims increasingly distinguish the Danish radical right from other party families, including their radical right predecessors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right (CARR), 2018
Keywords
radical right, nationalism
National Category
Sociology Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165195 (URN)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-00383
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Hjerm, M., Eger, M. A. & Danell, R. (2018). Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 4, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer Attitudes and the Development of Prejudice in Adolescence
2018 (English)In: Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, ISSN 2378-0231, Vol. 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to a number of psychological and sociological theories, individuals are susceptible to social influence from their immediate social environment, especially during adolescence. An important social context is the network of one’s peers. However, data limitations, specifically a lack of longitudinal data with information about respondents’ social networks, have limited previous analyses of the relationship between peers and prejudice over time. In this article, we rely on a five-wave panel of adolescents, aged either 13 or 16 in wave 1 (N = 1,009). We examine the effects of this social context on prejudice by focusing on nominated friends’ attitudes, attitudes of prestigious peers, and respondents’ own positions in their networks. Results indicate that the level of prejudice among peers affects individual prejudice over time. Results also show that both prestigious and nonprestigious peers affect prejudice. Finally, adolescents’ own positions in their networks matter: Network centrality is inversely related to prejudice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
prejudice, adolescence, longitudinal, anti-immigrant sentiment, peers
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144665 (URN)10.1177/2378023118763187 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P14-0775:1Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0019Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07177
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Co-InvestigatorHjerm, Mikael
Principal InvestigatorHjerm, Mikael
Coordinating organisation
Umeå University
Funder
Period
2015-01-01 - 2017-12-31
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:465Project, id: P14-0775:1_RJ