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Title [sv]
Varianter av fred
Title [en]
Varieties of Peace
Abstract [sv]
Forskningsprogrammet Varianter av fred syftar till att undersöka de långsiktiga konsekvenserna av fredsprocesser i konflikter som avslutades under 1990-talet. Den centrala frågan är: Varför leder vissa fredsprocesser till robust fred medan andra fredsprocesser leder till skör fred? Fredsprocesser har oftast studerats i kortare perspektiv, vanligtvis i ?lessons-learned? utvärderingar 5 år efter konfliktens slut, med utgångspunkt i forskning om konflikter. Det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet är ett ambitiöst initiativ som tar sin utgångspunkt i förståelsen av fred, dess variationer gällande kvalité och karaktär, och betraktar freden som en dynamisk samhällsförändrande process. Programmet Varianter av fred vill nu, 25?30 år efter att 1990-talets fredsprocesser påbörjades, undersöka framgångsrika, delvis framgångsrika och misslyckade processer i ett komparativt perspektiv, för att nå en djupare teoretisk och generaliserbar kunskap om vad fred är och hur den kan nås. Denna kunskap ska uppnås genom studier av fem huvudsakliga förklaringsfaktorer: 1) civilsamhällets agerande, kapacitet och resiliens, 2) avtalens undertecknare, deras intressen och strategier, 3) avtalens mål och innehåll 4) samhällets institutioner och dess resiliens, samt 5) internationell inblandning. Dessa faktorer kommer att studeras i tio sub-projekt, med ambitionen att fånga och förklara fredsprocessernas variation, interna dynamik och slutligen resultat, sett över en längre tidsperiod.
Abstract [en]
The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research question is: Why some peace processes lead to a robust and resilient peace while others lead to a fragile peace? Peace processes have been studied in shorter perspective, usually in ?lessons-learned? evaluations 5 years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace as a dynamic transformative process. It will investigate and evaluate successful, partly successful, and failed processes from a comparative perspective 25?30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. The most important explanatory variables at the core of research activities are: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the signatories of the agreements, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies? institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in ten sub-projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time.
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Johansson, P. & Saati, A. (2020). Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace
2020 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peace can take many different forms and be expressed in a myriad of different ways that go well-beyond “peace as the absence of war”. Though recent scholarly contributions within this vein of research acknowledge the empirical reality of a variety of “peaces”, we are yet to understand how – methodologically – researchers can go about the endeavor of developing tools that allow us to describe and classify varieties of peace.  Our effort in this paper addresses this knowledge gap. We bring attention to different methods for empirically capturing varieties of peace when peace is approached as a situation, as a relationship or as an idea. Though our purpose is to illustrate a “smorgasbord of methods” for analyzing varieties of peace, we also argue that any effort to approach such an analysis ought to be based on theoretically coherent sets of types. This is so because it will allow the researcher to provide a more nuanced picture of different varieties of peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2020. p. 18
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 13
Keywords
varieties of peace, methods, theoretically coherent sets of types
National Category
Globalisation Studies
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167296 (URN)978-91-7855-203-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Åkebo, M. (2019). “Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao. Peace and Change, 44(4), 468-496
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao
2019 (English)In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 468-496Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the peace and conflict literature, a ceasefire is often conceived as an event or an outcome of an armed conflict. In this paper, I argue that we can gain a better understanding of ceasefires by approaching them as dynamic processes of change and by exploring patterns of interactions and changing relationships in the context of ceasefire. I use this approach in a case study of the ceasefire between the government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in Mindanao. I suggest that the Mindanao ceasefire can be conceptualized as a form of “coexistence ceasefire,” and I trace the development of the particular ceasefire structure and interactions to features of the armed conflict, including its territorial dimension and the presence of multiple sources of violence. The paper contributes a new and more nuanced way of studying ceasefires that provides a better understanding of their characteristics and dynamics and of how they shape and in turn are shaped by the broader conflict landscape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
ceasefire, peace agreement, peace process, Mindanao
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162997 (URN)10.1111/pech.12372 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00527
Available from: 2019-09-04 Created: 2019-09-04 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A. K. & Segall, S. (2019). Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, 4(2-3), 239-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grasping the empirical realities of peace in post-war northern Mitrovica
2019 (English)In: Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 239-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While previous research has focused on the conflicts and division in Mitrovica, Kosovo, the present article explores how peace and conflict are intertwined in the post-war city by focusing on sites where communities live side by side in an otherwise segregated city. A key finding is that the most conflictual residential areas in northern Mitrovica also are places where what we call peace acts, peace issues and peace perceptions are found. Our research suggests that even in spaces in the city where a history of violence is entrenched, the situation can seldom be reduced to be seen only as purely conflictual; rather, these ‘hotspots’ often prove to be spaces where reproduction of peace – however quotidian – also occurs at the same time. This points us to the complexity of the realities of peace, where remnants of war and potential for a co-existing peace often overlap and are sometimes intrinsically intertwined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Peace, urban violence, post-war, Mitrovica, divided city
National Category
Globalisation Studies Social Anthropology
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165641 (URN)10.1080/23802014.2019.1687012 (DOI)
Projects
Vetenskapsrådet, projekt 2013-633
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Swedish Research Council, 2013-6334
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A., Eklund, N., Johansson, P., Olivius, E., Saati, A., Sahovic, D., . . . Åkebo, M. (2019). Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace. Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace
Show others...
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For decades, peace and conflict studies have devoted more attention to conflict than to peace, and despiteits centrality, peace itself has been under-conceptualized. In this paper, we propose a theoretical frameworkand methodologies to make peace beyond the absence of war researchable. The framework is designed to capture varieties of peace between and beyond dichotomous conceptions of positive versus negative peace, or successful versus failed peace processes. To capture the complexity of peace in its empirical diversity, our framework approaches peace in three different ways: as a situation or condition in a particular locality; as a web of relationships; and as ideas or discourses about what peace is or should be. These approaches provide different avenues for researching peace, and taken together they provide a fuller picture of what peace is, how it is manifested, experienced, and understood. We argue that this framework provides a way forward in advancing conceptual understandings and empirical analyses of peace that can facilitate systematic, comparative, qualitative analyses while at the same time accounting for the complex, multifaceted nature of peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 22
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 12
Keywords
peace, post-war, qualitative research, case studies
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165979 (URN)978-91-7855-171-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Johansson, P. (2018). Resilience Thinking for Peacebuilders. International Journal of Peace Studies, 23(2), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience Thinking for Peacebuilders
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Peace Studies, ISSN 1085-7494, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of resilience is currently making its way into the field of peace and conflict studies, but it is a concept with different meanings and implications. The argument advanced in this paper is that in order to make the most of resilience thinking, the field should not conceive of resilience merely as the ability to bounce back to an original state after a disturbance, a conceptualization usually referred to as “engineering resilience.” Instead, it should engage with “ecological resilience,” which refers to the amount of disturbance that a system can absorb before being pushed across a threshold from one stable state to another. I also relate these different types of resilience to another distinction between specified resilience to anticipated disturbances and general resilience to unknown ones. Finally, I consider a few other implications of resilience thinking for research on peace and conflict.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IPRA - Global Network of Peace Researchers, 2018
Keywords
resilience, peacebuilding, stability, adaptability
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159829 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-10-08Bibliographically approved
Co-InvestigatorÅkebo, Malin
Co-InvestigatorJarstad, Anna
Principal InvestigatorJarstad, Anna
Co-InvestigatorSöderström, Johanna
Co-InvestigatorSahovic, Dzenan
Coordinating organisation
Umeå University
Funder
Period
2017-01-01 - 2024-12-31
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)Globalization StudiesOther Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:488Project, id: M16-0297:1_RJ