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Motivational aspects of test-taking: measuring test-taking motivation in Swedish national test contexts
Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1861-6589
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the work underlying this thesis was to improve the understanding of students’ test-taking motivation in connection to achievement tests for young adolescents. The thesis includes four studies and a summary. All four studies explore test-taking motivation and are all connected to validity in one way of another. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation was used as a theoretical framework in the operationalization and measurement of test-taking motivation and the achievement tests in focus were the Swedish national test in science for grade nine students, a Swedish national test in mathematics for upper secondary students and field trials for both these tests.

In the first study psychometric properties of an expectancy-value based questionnaire measuring five aspects of test-taking motivation were evaluated. Findings provided support for construct validity, as internal structure of the data corresponded to the theoretical model, partial scalar invariance was obtained and correlations between test-taking motivation and test performance were found. In the second study the students’ test-taking motivation at the field trial and the national test were analysed in more detail. The analyses showed a significant increase in all test-taking motivation aspects between the field trial and the regular national test. Test-taking motivation at the field trial did also differ between school classes and test anxiety and expectancies differed between females and males. Further, effort, expectancies, importance and interest were significant predictors of test score after preliminary grades had been accounted for. The third study was an interview study aiming to examine students’ test-taking motivation at national test as well as the field trial in more depth. The interviews provided a rich understanding of the different aspects of test-taking motivation as described by the expectancy-value theory, for example why students find the national test important and what they mean by giving effort to a test. In the fourth study psychometric properties of an extended and revised test-taking motivation questionnaire were evaluated in a new sample of students. The analysis showed that the questionnaire had sound psychometric properties and supported the assumption that test-taking motivation consists of several distinctly different aspects, but also showed that the different subscales are highly related.

In conclusion, the results provide support for several aspects of construct validity of the test-taking motivation questionnaire. Further, all studies showed that test-taking motivation differ between test with different stakes as well as between students and classes taking similar tests. Test-taking motivation also seem to affect test results. Thus, all students do not seem to be equally motivated to do their best on all tests and consideration should be taken to how students approach and experience each specific test when planning and interpreting achievement tests. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2017. , s. 63
Serie
Academic dissertations at the department of Educational Measurement, ISSN 1652-9650 ; 9
Nyckelord [en]
Test-taking motivation, Swedish national tests, validity, expectancy-value theory, task value, expectancies, young adolescents, self-report instrument, interview, structural equation modelling, test stakes
Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
beteendevetenskapliga mätningar
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131028ISBN: 978-91-7601-672-5 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-131028DiVA, id: diva2:1071134
Disputation
2017-03-03, Hörsal 1031, Norra beteendevetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2012-5075Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-10 Skapad: 2017-02-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Modeling the test-taking motivation construct through investigation of psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Modeling the test-taking motivation construct through investigation of psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 33, nr 7, s. 662-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an expectancy-value-based questionnaire measuring five aspects of test-taking motivation (effort, expectancies, importance, interest, and test anxiety). The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of Swedish Grade 9 students taking a low-stakes (n = 1,047) or a high-stakes (n = 536) test. Structural equation modeling largely supported theoretical assumptions and psychometric properties were acceptable. Expectancies and importance were significant predictors of effort, and effort significantly predicted performance in both test situations. Furthermore, measurement invariance across test situations was investigated. Partial scalar invariance was obtained and latent mean comparisons showed significantly higher levels of reported test-taking motivation in the high-stakes context. The study findings suggest that the present instrument can be used in low- as well as high-stakes assessment contexts not only to get an extended knowledge of test-takers' perceptions of tests but also to control for lack of motivation when stakes are low for test-takers.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Thousand oaks: Sage Publications, 2015
Nyckelord
test-taking motivation, expectancy-value theory, test stakes, structural equation modeling, asurement invariance
Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109794 (URN)10.1177/0734282914551956 (DOI)000360815200005 ()2-s2.0-84940914160 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2012-5075
Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-08 Skapad: 2015-10-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Are all Pupils Equally Motivated to do Their Best on all Tests?: Differences in Reported Test-Taking Motivation within and between Tests with Different Stakes
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Are all Pupils Equally Motivated to do Their Best on all Tests?: Differences in Reported Test-Taking Motivation within and between Tests with Different Stakes
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 95-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated changes in reported test-taking motivation from a low-stakes to a high-stakes test and if there are differences in reported test-taking motivation between school classes. A questionnaire including scales assessing reported effort, expectancies, perceived importance, interest and test anxiety, was administered to a sample of pupils (n = 375) in 9th grade in direct connection to a national test field trial and then again to the same sample in connection to the regular national test in science. Two-level second order latent growth modelling was used to analyse data. In summary, the results show a significant increase in reported test-taking motivation from the field trial to the regular test and a significant variability in test-taking motivation between classes.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Routledge, 2017
Nyckelord
multilevel modelling, test-taking motivation, test stakes, class effect
Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
beteendevetenskapliga mätningar
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-123173 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2015.1119723 (DOI)000393802200007 ()2-s2.0-84958045739 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2012-5075
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-28 Skapad: 2016-06-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
3. 'It was, Perhaps, the Most Important One': Students' Perceptions of National Tests in Terms of Test-Taking Motivation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>'It was, Perhaps, the Most Important One': Students' Perceptions of National Tests in Terms of Test-Taking Motivation
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 202-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine ninth-grade students' perception of a Swedish national test in science (high-stakes for the students) and a field trial (low-stakes for the students), in terms of test-taking motivation. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with 12 students. Overall, the students had a positive perception of the national test; they were motivated to do their best, believed they did well and found the test important and good. Several students were nervous before the test and some during the test whereas others felt okay, or even enjoyed taking the national test. The students talked about less effort and test anxiety in the field trial and perceived the test as less important compared to the national test. The interviews provided a rich understanding of the different aspects of test-taking motivation as described by the expectancy-value theory. Furthermore, they indicated how the test administration could be adjusted so as to achieve higher test validity.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Nyckelord
Test-taking motivation, students' perception, national test, expectancy-value theory
Nationell ämneskategori
Didaktik
Forskningsämne
beteendevetenskapliga mätningar
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131024 (URN)10.1080/0969594X.2017.1323725 (DOI)000465911000006 ()2-s2.0-85019270924 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-02 Skapad: 2017-02-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Evaluation of a Revised Expectancy-Value Based Questionnaire by Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of a Revised Expectancy-Value Based Questionnaire by Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nyckelord
test-taking motivation, expectancy-value theory, test stakes, utility, cost
Nationell ämneskategori
Övrig annan samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
beteendevetenskapliga mätningar
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131026 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-02 Skapad: 2017-02-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09

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