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Exemplar-effects in rule-based multiple-cue judgment under time pressure
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
Institutionen för psykologi, Uppsala Universitet.
Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The field of multiple-cue judgment focuses on the cognitive representations and processes involved in tasks where people need to integrate information across several cues into a judgment on a single criterion dimension. We present here an experimental approach to examine the influence of exemplar-based processes in human judgment, hypothesizing that a default exemplar-based process underlie judgment with emphasis on when cue-abstraction is discontinued. Using predictions from detailed cognitive models, we evaluate participants judgments on two tests with and without time pressure, after extensive learning with cue-abstraction. Results confirmed that participants were unable to use cue-abstraction under time pressure, but failed to confirm the expected shift to exemplar-based memory based on model fit on group level. Participants did however show typical behavioral markers for exemplar-based processes under time pressure, which emphasizes its likely contribution in the judgment process. Moreover, a large subsample of participants did show the expected shift to exemplar-based memory under time pressure. Nevertheless, the results provide novel insights to how exemplar-based processes influence cue-abstraction under time pressure, and open up for the idea of a default exemplar-based process in human judgment.

Nyckelord [en]
multiple-cue judgment, exemplar-based model, cue-abstraction model, time pressure, cognitive modelling
Nationell ämneskategori
Tillämpad psykologi Neurologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159171OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-159171DiVA, id: diva2:1316928
Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-21 Skapad: 2019-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-22
Ingår i avhandling
1. Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background: We often make judgments that require the consideration of several sources of information. For example, a teacher that grades a student´s exam question often integrates multiple sources of information (cues: details provided in the answer) into a single criterion dimension (the grade). This is an example of a multiple-cue judgment: a continuous estimate based on multiple cues. One common idea in the literature is that people often utilize different memory representations during this kind of judgment process. People sometimes rely on rules, where they weigh the impact of different cues together in an additive linear way. At other times, people focus on the similarity between a probe and their experience of previous similar cases.  It has been proposed that similarity is an important organizing principle by which people make judgments, and that similarity always influence the judgment process to some degree. Behavioral methods with cognitive modelling (fitting cognitive models of rule-based and similarity-based processes to behavioral judgment data) have been used to test when people engage in either process, based on the classification of the better model fit. The brain networks that support human multiple-cue judgment could provide some answers to the role of similarity-based processes, but the existing knowledge on this topic is limited.  Here, I combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cognitive modelling and experimental methods to extend previous behavioral research, and I focused on the nature of similarity in human multiple-cue judgment. I explored how the two types of memory representations are represented in the brain, if rule-based and similarity-based processes are exclusively engaged or operate as an interplay during the judgment process, and tested if similarity-based processes are the default process in rule-based judgment. 

Results: Study I investigated how the relationship between rule-based and similarity-based processes should be understood. The results revealed that a similarity-based process in the precuneus is shared between the two conditions: a key brain region for similarity-based processes is thus critical for human judgment. Study II further explored the precuneus role in similarity-based judgment learning, and demonstrated that the precuneus contribute to a mnemonic process related to storing and retrieving memory representations that are used for similarity comparison. Study III tested the influence of similarity-based processes in rule-based judgment when a learned rule could not be applied, and results suggested that similarity-based processes influenced rule-based behavior. 

Conclusion: These findings converge to the idea that similarity-based processes are critical for human multiple-cue judgment. Specifically, a similarity-based process in the precuneus, presumably involved in storage and retrieval of memory representations that are used for similarity comparison, stands out as a novel contribution to the neuroscience of human multiple-cue judgment.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2019. s. 84
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2044
Nyckelord
multiple-cue judgment, similarity-based, rule-based, exemplar-based model, fMRI, cognitive modelling
Nationell ämneskategori
Neurovetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159209 (URN)978-91-7855-085-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-06-14, Bio.A.206, Biologihuset, Flygel A, Umeå, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-24 Skapad: 2019-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-13Bibliografiskt granskad

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Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB)Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI)Institutionen för psykologi
Tillämpad psykologiNeurologi

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