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Gender and physiology in ice hockey: a multidimensional study
Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background That men are prioritised over women has been called the “gender regime in sport”, and has in part been explained by the gender difference in performance. However, gender differences in physical performance between women and men can be debated to depend on how comparisons are made and on the fact that there are many different confounders that may influence the results. Even if attempts are made to overcome this and the groups of women and men are stated to be matched, there are still often differences in training experience in years, or differences in training load. Women tend to have less experience in ice hockey in relation to age and differences in training conditions have also been reported. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how female and male ice hockey players position themselves in their sport and to visualise the interactions between society and biology that may affect performance.

Theoretical approach and methods Harding’s three perspectives (Symbolic, Structural and Individual) were applied on information from team administration as well as on results from questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and tests of puck velocity, anthropometrics, body composition, isokinetic muscle strength, ergospirometry and on-ice tests from female and male ice hockey players.

Results Vast differences in structural conditions were found, for example in hockey history and in the financial situation within the teams and both women and men were aware of the gender differences in structural conditions. However these differences were not even considered when comparisons of the ice hockey performance of women and men were made. Nine out of ten female players increased puck velocity when a more flexible stick and a lighter puck were used thus indicating that poorly adjusted equipment may affect performance. Male ice hockey players were taller, heavier and stronger, had more lean body mass and a higher aerobic capacity compared to the women in absolute values as well as in relation to body weight. However, the differences diminished or disappeared when the values were expressed in relation to lean body mass. Men had higher expectations on their situation as athletes and the interviewed women described men’s ice hockey as superior to theirs and consequently male ice hockey players deserved better conditions.

Conclusions The views of women and men may affect structural conditions in sport which in turn may affect possibilities in sport for the individual. Gender differences in conditions thus risk confirming the traditional views of femininity and masculinity. However, by moving outside the normal gender boundaries individuals may change the traditional views of femininity and masculinity.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå university , 2009. , s. 73
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1309
Nyckelord [en]
physiology, gender, sports medicine, ice hockey, women's sport, athletic performance, social conditions, qualitative method, quantitative method, exercise tests
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap Genusstudier
Forskningsämne
fysiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30354ISBN: 978-91-7264-893-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-30354DiVA, id: diva2:281802
Disputation
2010-01-08, Betula, Umeå, 09:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-21 Skapad: 2009-12-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Gendered expectations and structural conditions in ice hockey
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gendered expectations and structural conditions in ice hockey
(Engelska)Ingår i: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, ISSN 0270-1367, E-ISSN 2168-3824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Using player questionnaires (72 women, 42 men) and club staff interviews, this paper provides an analysis of the effect of structural conditions on expectations of support and hindrance. In spite of large structural conditions women and men rated similar levels of support and hindrance. Yet, both women and men believed that the situation in sport was better for men. The adult women’s lower expectations may be an indication of their awareness of their lower status within their sport. When comparisons are made between women and men in sport it is important to consider that gender operates at different levels and may affect conditions as well as expectations

Nyckelord
Women’s sport, Questionnaire, Gender regime
Nationell ämneskategori
Socialt arbete Genusstudier Idrottsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30307 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-16 Skapad: 2009-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 235-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how female ice hockey players describe and explain their situation within as well as outside their sport. Information was obtained by semi-structured interviews with female ice hockey players. The results were analyzed in a gender perspective where the main starting point was the concepts of different levels of power relations in society developed by Harding and applied to sports by Kolnes (the symbolic, structural and individual level). The study shows that the players appeared to share the traditional views of men and women. They also described gender differences in terms of financial and structural conditions as well as differences in ice hockey history. Even though the players described structural inequalities, they were quite content with their situation and the differences in conditions were not considered when they explained the gender differences in ice hockey performance. On the individual level the players considered themselves different from other women and appeared to share the traditional views of femininity and masculinity.

It has been suggested that performance of a sport traditionally associated with the other sex might alter the traditional view of men and women, however our results give little support to that suggestion.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Blackwell, 2008
Nationell ämneskategori
Socialt arbete Idrottsvetenskap Genusstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30311 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00665.x (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-16 Skapad: 2009-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-06Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Influence of stick stiffness and puck weight on puck velocity during slap shots in women's ice hockey
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of stick stiffness and puck weight on puck velocity during slap shots in women's ice hockey
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 103-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have found that reduced stick stiffness increases puck velocity in young male ice hockey players. This study investigates the hypothesis that female players are disadvantaged by using equipment that is designed for taller and stronger players. The purpose of this study was to investigate if stick flexibility and puck weight affect puck velocity in standing slap shots performed by female ice hockey players. There was a significant increase in puck velocity (4.1% p=0.037) when stick stiffness and puck weight were reduced. ANOVA revealed that there was a significant correlation between stick, puck and the participant herself (R2=0.987). Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed that participants with higher puck velocities benefitted the most when the stick flexibility and puck weight were reduced (r=0.648; p=0.043). It was concluded that decreased stick stiffness and puck weight increased puck velocity in standing slap shots for female ice hockey players.

Nyckelord
Ice hockey, equipment, women's sports, performance, adjustment
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap Fysiologi
Forskningsämne
fysiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30313 (URN)10.1007/s12283-009-0015-6 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-16 Skapad: 2009-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Physiological Correlates of Skating Performance in Women's and Men's Ice Hockey
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Physiological Correlates of Skating Performance in Women's and Men's Ice Hockey
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 2133-2142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current investigation was to identify relationships between physiological off-ice tests and on-ice performance in female and male ice hockey players on a comparable competitive level. Eleven women, 24 ± 3.0 years, and 10 male ice hockey players, 23 ± 2.4 years, were tested for background variables: height, body weight (BW), ice hockey history, and lean body mass (LBM) and peak torque (PT) of the thigh muscles, [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak and aerobic performance (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation [OBLA], respiratory exchange ratio [RER1]) during an incremental bicycle ergometer test. Four different on-ice tests were used to measure ice skating performance. For women, skating time was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to BW and negatively correlated to LBM%, PT/BW, OBLA, RER 1, and [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (ml O2·kg-1 BW-1·min-1) in the Speed test. Acceleration test was positively correlated to BW and negatively correlated to OBLA and RER 1. For men, correlation analysis revealed only 1 significant correlation where skating time was positively correlated to [latin capital V with dot above]o2peak (L O2·min-1) in the Acceleration test. The male group had significantly higher physiological test values in all variables (absolute and relative to BW) but not in relation to LBM. Selected off-ice tests predict skating performance for women but not for men. The group of women was significantly smaller and had a lower physiological performance than the group of men and were slower in the on-ice performance tests. However, gender differences in off-ice variables were reduced or disappeared when values were related to LBM, indicating a similar capacity of producing strength and aerobic power in female and male hockey players. Skating performance in female hockey players may be improved by increasing thigh muscle strength, oxygen uptake, and relative muscle mass.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2011
Nyckelord
Body composition, exercise test, muscle strength, gender
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysiologi Idrottsvetenskap Genusstudier
Forskningsämne
fysiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-30315 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ecd072 (DOI)000293063500011 ()21785292 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-80052734583 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-12-17 Skapad: 2009-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-18Bibliografiskt granskad

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