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Realizing large-area arrays of semiconducting fullerene nanostructures with direct laser interference patterning
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. (The Biophysics and Biophotonics group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9835-3263
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2018 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 540-545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 18, no 1, p. 540-545
Keywords [en]
semiconducting nanostructure, mask- and resist-free patterning, laser interference lithography, fullerenes, phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), high contrast
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143439DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04568ISI: 000420000000073PubMedID: 29232948OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-143439DiVA, id: diva2:1169581
Part of project
Organisk elektronik - nanodesign för funktionella applikationer, Swedish Energy AgencyAvailable from: 2017-12-28 Created: 2017-12-28 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The functionality and application of organic semiconductors are largely dependent on their constituent structure and morphology. This thesis presents a number of functional and novel approaches for the control and tuning of structural and morphological features of a variety of organic semiconductor materials, and also demonstrates that these approaches can be utilized for improved device operation of field-effect transistors, organic solar cells and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

The fullerene family is a particular group of closed-cage organic semiconductors, which can be photochemically coupled into larger dimeric or polymeric structures through the excitation of the fullerene molecules by light emission. In Paper I, we perform a detailed experimental and analytical investigation, which demonstrates that this photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation requires that both constituent fullerene molecules are photoexcited. The direct consequence is that the initial probability for the photochemical transformation is dependent on the square of the light-emission intensity.

The photochemical coupling of fullerene molecules commonly results in a distinctly lowered solubility in common hydrophobic solvents, which can be utilized for the direct patterning of fullerene films by resist-free lithography. In Paper II, we utilize this patterning opportunity for the fabrication of one-dimensional fullerene nano-stripes using two-beam laser interference lithography. A desired high contrast between the patterned and non-patterned fullerene regions is facilitated by the non-linear response of the photochemical transformation process, as predicted by the findings in Paper I. The patterned fullerene nano-stripes were utilized as the active material in field-effect transistors, which featured high electron mobility and large on-off ratio.

This patterning was in Paper III extended into easy tunable two-dimensional fullerene structures by the design and development of an exposure setup, essentially comprising a laser and a spatial light modulator featuring >8 millions of independently controlled mirrors. With this approach, we could fabricate well-defined fullerene microdots over a several square-millimeter sized area, which was utilized as an internal out-coupling layer in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with significantly enhanced light output.

Paper IV reports on the development of a new “spray-sintering” method for the cost-efficient solution-based deposition of the active material in light-emitting electrochemical cells. This carefully designed approach effectively resolves the issue with phase separation between the hydrophobic organic semiconductor and the hydrophilic electrolyte that results in a sub-par LEC performance, and also allows for the direct fabrication of LEC devices onto complex surfaces, including a stainless-steel fork.

Paper V finally reports on the design and synthesis of a soluble small molecule, featuring a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. It acts as the donor when combined with a soluble fullerene acceptor in the active material of organic solar cells, and such devices with optimized donor/acceptor nanomorphology feature a high open-circuit voltage of ~1.0 V during solar illumination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 65
Keywords
Organic electronics, organic photonics, patterning, fullerene, polymerization, dimerization, spray-deposition, morphology, small molecule donor, high open-circuit voltage
National Category
Polymer Technologies Nano Technology Other Physics Topics Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166407 (URN)978-91-7855-170-5 (ISBN)978-91-7855-169-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-09, Bio.A.206, Biologihuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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Enevold, JennyLarsen, ChristianZakrisson, JohanAndersson, MagnusEdman, Ludvig

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