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LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, s. 660-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 200, s. 660-670
Nyckelord [en]
HIV-ARVs, ARVDs, LC-MS/MS, Matrix-effect, DEWATS, WWTPs
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147284DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.105ISI: 000429891300075PubMedID: 29524887OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-147284DiVA, id: diva2:1210072
Projekt
Bio4EnergyTillgänglig från: 2018-05-25 Skapad: 2018-05-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-02Bibliografiskt granskad

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Späth, JanaFick, JerkerJansson, Stina

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