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Cost of antenatal care for the health sector and for households in Rwanda
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0485-931X
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
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2018 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Rwanda has made tremendous progress in reduction of maternal mortality in the last twenty years. Antenatal care is believed to have played a role in that progress. In late 2016, the World Health Organization published new antenatal care guidelines recommending an increase from four visits during pregnancy to eight contacts with skilled personnel, among other changes. There is ongoing debate regarding the cost implications and potential outcomes countries can expect, if they make that shift. For Rwanda, a necessary starting point is to understand the cost of current antenatal care practice, which, according to our knowledge, has not been documented so far.

Methods: Cost information was collected from Kigali City and Northern province of Rwanda through two cross-sectional surveys: a household-based survey among women who had delivered a year before the interview (N = 922) and a health facility survey in three public, two faith-based, and one private health facility. A micro costing approach was used to collect health facility data. Household costs included time and transport. Results are reported in 2015 USD.

Results: The societal cost (household + health facility) of antenatal care for the four visits according to current Rwandan guidelines was estimated at $160 in the private health facility and $44 in public and faith-based health facilities. The first visit had the highest cost ($75 in private and $21 in public and faith-based health facilities) compared to the three other visits. Drugs and consumables were the main input category accounting for 54% of the total cost in the private health facility and for 73% in the public and faith-based health facilities.

Conclusions: The unit cost of providing antenatal care services is considerably lower in public than in private health facilities. The household cost represents a small proportion of the total, ranging between 3% and 7%; however, it is meaningful for low-income families. There is a need to do profound equity analysis regarding the accessibility and use of antenatal care services, and to consider ways to reduce households’ time cost as a possible barrier to the use of antenatal care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 18, article id 262
Keywords [en]
Antenatal care, Cost of care, Rwanda
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147461DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-3013-1ISI: 000430259300002PubMedID: 29631583OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-147461DiVA, id: diva2:1210833
Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Health economic evaluation for evidence-informed decisions in low-resource settings: the case of Antenatal care policy in Rwanda
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health economic evaluation for evidence-informed decisions in low-resource settings: the case of Antenatal care policy in Rwanda
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att använda hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar för att underlätta evidensinformerat beslutfattande i resursknappa miljöer : en studie av mödrahälsovård i Rwanda
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The general aim of this thesis is to contribute to the use of health economic evidence for informed health care decisions in low-resource settings, using antenatal care (ANC) policy in Rwanda as a case study. Despite impressive and sustained progress over the last 15 years, Rwanda’s maternal mortality ratio is still among the highest in the world. Persistent gaps in health care during pregnancy make ANC a good candidate among interventions that can, if improved, contribute to better health and well-being of mothers and newborns in Rwanda.

Methods: Data used in this thesis were gathered from primary and secondary data collections. The primary data sources included a cross-sectional household survey (N=922) and a health facility survey (N=6) conducted in Kigali city and the Northern Province, as well as expert elicitation with Rwandan specialists (N=8). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for women during the first-year post-partum was measured using the EQ-5D-3L instrument. The association between HRQoL and adequacy of ANC utilization and socioeconomic and demographic predictors was tested through bivariate and linear regression analyses (Paper I). The costs of current ANC practices in Rwanda for both the health sector and households were estimated through analysis of primary data (Paper II). Incremental cost associated with the implementation of the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) ANC recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda was estimated through simulation of attendance and adaptation of the unit cost estimates (Paper III). Incremental health outcomes of the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations were estimated as life-years saved from perinatal and maternal mortality reduction obtained from the expert elicitation (Paper III). Lastly, a systematic review of the evidence base for the cost and cost-effectiveness of routine ultrasound during pregnancy was conducted (Paper IV). The review included 606 studies published between January 1999 and April 2018 and retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane database.

Results: Sixty one percent of women had not adequately attended ANC according to the Rwandan guidelines during their last pregnancy; either attending late or fewer than four times. Adequate utilization of ANC was significantly associated with better HRQoL after delivery measured using EQ-VAS, as were good social support and household wealth. The most prevalent health problems were anxiety or depression and pain or discomfort. The first ANC visit accounted for about half the societal cost of ANC, which was $44 per woman (2015 USD) in public/faith-based facilities and $160 in the surveyed private facility. Implementing the 2016 WHO recommendations in Rwanda would have an incremental national annual cost between $5.8 million and $11 million across different attendance scenarios. The estimated reduction in perinatal mortality would be between 22.5% and 55%, while maternal mortality reduction would range from 7% to 52.5%. Out of six combinations of attendance and health outcome scenarios, four were below the GDP-based cost-effectiveness threshold. Out of the 606 studies on cost and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound during pregnancy retrieved from the databases, only nine reached the data extraction stage. Routine ultrasound screening was reported to be a cost-effective intervention for screening pregnant women for cervical length, for vasa previa, and congenital heart disease, and cost-saving when used for screening for fetal malformations.

Conclusions: The use of health economic evidence in decision making for low-income countries should be promoted. It is currently among the least used types of evidence, yet there is a huge potential of gaining many QALYs given persistent and avoidable morbidity and mortality. In this thesis, ANC policy in Rwanda was used as a case to contribute to evidence informed decision-making using health economic evaluation methods. Low-income countries, particularly those that that still have a high burden of maternal and perinatal mortality should consider implementing the 2016 WHO ANC recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 91
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1995
Keywords
Antenatal, maternal, cost, cost-effectiveness, ultrasound, EQ-5D-3L, Low-income countries
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153600 (URN)978-91-7601-975-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-19, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved

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Hitimana, RegisLindholm, LarsNzayirambaho, ManassePulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria

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