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Using carbonized low-cost materials for removal of chemicals of environmental concern from water
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå Energi AB, Umeå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Industrial Doctoral School, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8890-835x
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
2018 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15793-15801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adsorption on low-cost biochars would increase the affordability and availability of water treatment in, for example, developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the precursor materials and hydrochar surface properties that yield efficient removal of compounds of environmental concern (CEC). We determined the adsorption kinetics of a mixture containing ten CECs (octhilinone, triclosan, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, fluconazole, and bisphenol A) to hydrochars prepared from agricultural waste (including tomato- and olive-press wastes, rice husks, and horse manure). The surface characteristics of the hydrochars were evaluated via diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2-adsorption. Kinetic adsorption tests revealed that removal efficiencies varied substantially among different materials. Similarly, surface analysis revealed differences among the studied hydrochars and the degree of changes that the materials undergo during carbonization. According to the DRIFTS data, compared with the least efficient adsorbent materials, the most efficient hydrochars underwent more substantial changes during carbonization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018. Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15793-15801
Keywords [en]
Hydrochar, Adsorption, Hydrothermal carbonization, Agro-industrial residues, Organic chemicals, Low-cost adsorbents
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150787DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1781-0ISI: 000434051300046PubMedID: 29582326OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-150787DiVA, id: diva2:1239374
Projects
Bio4EnergyAvailable from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tailoring residue-derived carbon materials for the removal of wastewater contaminants: adsorption and surface properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring residue-derived carbon materials for the removal of wastewater contaminants: adsorption and surface properties
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The availability of effective, low-cost wastewater treatment is necessary for increased water recycling and the prevention of environmental pollution on a global scale. Adsorption on activated carbons is commonly applied in wastewater treatment, but the high cost of conventional activated carbons limits the use of this technique. Several waste streams, such as the residues and by-products of food processing, agriculture and industrial processes, are currently inefficiently utilized and could be transformed into value-added carbon materials. Re-thinking how waste is utilized could reduce waste handling costs and increase resource efficiency, which would provide both economic and environmental benefits. Therefore, low-cost carbon materials prepared from renewable low-cost resources are an attractive alternative to decreasing the costs of wastewater treatment.

The research underlying this thesis investigated the potential of carbonized residue materials to remove environmentally relevant concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. The research covered in this thesis included the carbonization of tomato- and olive press wastes, rise husks, horse manure, municipal wastewater sludge and bio- and fiber sludges from pulp and paper mills. The effect of carbonization temperature and starting material was studied in terms of surface properties and contaminant removal to gain knowledge on which surface features are beneficial for the removal of different contaminants. The extent to which different chemical activations of carbonized materials improve the contaminant removal was also studied.

The results demonstrate that carbonized materials are generally quite ineffective at removing organic compounds from water, which may be due to the low surface areas of these materials. Carbonization temperature was shown to alter the surface functionalities of the carbons, more specifically, high carbonization temperatures decreased oxygen-containing surface functionalities that benefitted the removal of most contaminants (which was most pronounced for Zn and trimethoprim). Further experiments investigated the role of the water matrix, and the results unexpectedly showed higher removal from a complex water matrix. Chemical activation improved removal efficiencies for all of the studied compounds, with the most pronounced effects observed for organic compounds. The activated carbons were able to completely remove fluconazole and trimethoprim from the landfill leachate water, and also showed high removal efficiensies (50-96%) of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the results showed that adsorbate compounds may interact with the adsorbent surface in diverse ways, for example, via properties such as porosity and the presence of oxygen-containing functionalities or minerals. Also, adsorbate hydrophobicity (log Kow) affected the removal of organic compounds in some of the studied hydrochars. The research discussed in this thesis has highlighted that future studies should study the broad range of environmentally-relevant adsorbates through multi-component adsorption systems that include several complex water matrices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 69
Keywords
Adsorption, hydrochar, HTC, chemical activation, wastewater, pharmaceuticals, metals, surface properties, biobased residues
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158507 (URN)978-91-7855-071-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, KB.E3.01 (Lilla Hörsalen), KBC-huset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved

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Weidemann, EvaNiinipuu, MirvaFick, JerkerJansson, Stina

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