umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4656-7606
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9169-1059
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9016-1139
Show others and affiliations
2018 (English)In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time.

Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden. We included people who were aged 40-67 years, had sedentary work tasks, and had a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. After the baseline measurement, we stratified participants by their BMI (25-30 kg/m2 and >30 to 40 kg/m2); subsequently, an external statistician randomly assigned these participants (1:1) to either the intervention group (who received treadmill workstations for optional use) or the control group (who continued to work at their sit-stand desks as usual). Participants in the intervention group received reminders in boosting emails sent out to them at four occasions during the study period. Researchers were masked to group assignment until after analysis of the primary outcome. After the baseline measurement, participants were not masked to group belongings. The primary outcome was total daily walking time at weekdays and weekends, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 13 months with the accelerometer activPAL (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK), which was worn on the thigh of participants for 24 h a day for 7 consecutive days. We used an intention-to-treat approach for our analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997970, and is closed to new participants.

Findings: Between Nov 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, a total of 80 participants were recruited and enrolled (n=40 in both the intervention and control groups). Daily walking time during total time awake at weekdays increased between baseline and 13 months by 18 min (95% CI 9 to 26) in the intervention group and 1 min (-7 to 9) in the control group (difference 22 min [95% CI 7 to 37], pinteraction=0·00045); for weekend walking, the change from baseline to 13 months was 5 min (-8 to 18) in the intervention group and 8 min (-5 to 21) in the control group (difference -1 min [-19 to 17]; pinteraction=0·00045). Neither measure met our predetermined primary outcome of 30 min difference in total walking time between the intervention and control group, so the primary outcome of the trial was not met. One adverse event was reported in a participant who accidently stepped on their Achilles tendon.

Interpretation: In a sedentary work environment, treadmill workstations result in a statistically significant but smaller-than-expected increase in daily walking time. Future studies need to investigate how increasing physical activity at work might have potentially compensatory effects on non-work activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Lancet Publishing Group , 2018. Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152709DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30163-4ISI: 000451514600013PubMedID: 30322782OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-152709DiVA, id: diva2:1257282
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Active workstations: a NEAT way to prevent and treat overweight and obesity?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active workstations: a NEAT way to prevent and treat overweight and obesity?
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Aktiva arbetsstationer : ett sätt att förebygga och behandla övervikt och fetma?
Abstract [en]

Background: Modern society is triggering sedentary behaviours in different domains. Different strategies can be used to reduce the time spent sitting and increase physical activity in the office environment, which is one domain where sedentary time is often high. One such strategy could be to install treadmill workstations. With these, the office workers can walk on a treadmill while performing their usual work tasks at the computer. However, the long-term effects of these workstations are not known. 

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects on sedentary behaviour, physical activity and associated health factors of installing treadmill workstations in offices compared to regular office work.

Method: In this randomized controlled trial, 80 sedentary, middle-aged, healthy office workers with overweight or obesity were individually randomized into either an intervention or a control group. Those in the intervention group had a treadmill workstation installed at their sit-stand desk, to use for at least one hour per day for 13 months. They further received boosting e-mails at four time-points during the study. Participants in the control group continued to work as normal at their sit-stand office desk. All participants also received a health consultation at the beginning of the study, where they got to discuss physical activity and diet recommendations. Measurements reported include physical activity and sedentary behaviour, anthropometric measurements, body composition, metabolic outcomes, stress, depression and anxiety, cognitive function, structural brain images and interview data. Linear mixed models were used for the main statistical analyses of the quantitative data. An exploratory approach was also undertaken, using orthogonal partial least squares regression on the baseline data. Finally, interview data from participants in the intervention group were analysed using a modified Grounded Theory approach.

Results: The intervention group increased their daily walking time and their number of steps at all follow-ups compared to the control group. Concomitantly, a decrease in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was observed within both groups, mainly during weekends. No intervention effects were observed on any of the body, cognitive or brain volume measurements. Our exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between smaller hippocampal volume and percentage sitting time among participants over 51 years of age. From the interview data, we discovered a core category, “The Capacity to Benefit”. The categories were described as the ideal types the Convinced, the Competitive, the Responsible and the Vacillating, based on the principal characteristics of the participants representing their different motivational status and strategies to reach the goal of benefitting from the intervention.  

Conclusion: It is possible to increase daily physical activity in office environments by introducing treadmill workstations. Future interventions should adapt strategies for the individuals based on their motivational level, but should also workwith the social and physical environment and with factors within the organization to gain the best effects of these interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 93
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1981
Keywords
treadmill workstations, sedentary behaviour, light-intensity physical activity, non-exercise activity thermogenesis, office workers, obesity
National Category
Clinical Medicine Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152802 (URN)978-91-7601-949-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-16, Aulan Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
2. Interventions for increased physical activity among office workers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interventions for increased physical activity among office workers
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The positive association between physical activity (PA) and health is well established. Technical developments in modern life have created major changes in our societies and working life, and a growing body of research has identified sedentary behavior (SB) as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer as well as for premature mortality. To promote health, it is important to find ways to decrease SB and incorporate PA in office settings, for example, by using new office designs and behavioral interventions.

 

The aim of this thesis was to evaluate two workplace interventions among office workers to determine if these led to increased PA and reduced SB, and to describe underlying factors behind these results.

 

The thesis is based on two workplace interventions. The first intervention was the Inphact treadmill study, a 13-month randomized controlled trial where treadmill workstations were installed and participants were instructed to use the treadmill for at least one hour per workday. The second intervention was the Active Office Design (AOD) study. This study included a multicomponent PA promoting program, implemented in parallel with an office relocation to either traditional cell offices or to a flex office with activity-based work (ABW). The two groups in the AOD study were followed from 6 months before relocation to 18 months after. 

 

Objectively measured data for SB, PA, and body measurements were collected in both studies. In the Inphact treadmill study, body composition, metabolic outcomes, self-reported energy and stress, and depression and anxiety scores were also measured. In the AOD study, measurements of health and lifestyle, musculoskeletal disorders, workload, work tasks, utilization of possibilities to be active at work, and perceptions of the performed PA promoting program were assessed via questionnaires. In addition, interview data were collected via focus groups and individual interviews. Linear mixed models were used for the main statistical analyses of the quantitative data. To explore the factors that influence SB and PA at work we combined factor analysis of mixed data with multiple linear regression.Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and a deductive approach to a process evaluation model. 

 

In both study populations, sitting time was low and stand­ing time was high already at baseline, compared to other studies on office workers. In the Inphact treadmill study, the intervention group showed increased walking time during workdays compared to the control group for all follow-up measurements. At the same time, a decrease in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was observed in both the intervention and control groups during leisure time. No intervention effects were seen on body measurements, body composition, metabolic outcomes, stress, or anxiety during the treadmill intervention. 

 

In the AOD study, employees relocated to flex offices increased their walking time and MVPA during work hours to a greater extent than those relocated to cell offices, but neither group changed the amount of time spent sitting at work. Contrary to the Inphact treadmill study, no compensatory effects were seen during leisure time. The exploratory analysis resulted in six employee character-types, where the “harmonic and healthy” and “engaged with high workload” tended to sit more and to stand less, while the character type with “high BMI, creative and collaborative work” tended to sit less and stand more. The process evaluation of the intervention revealed a strong culture to encourage PA within the organization and that the intervention was supported by management. The timing of the program was questioned, and activities to support the relocation to the flex office with ABW were requested. Social acceptance for standing and walking at work increased, although the need for the intervention was debated due to the strong culture of facilitating PA at work already in place prior to the study.

 

In conclusion, we showed long-term increases in PA were achieved in office workers, but the changes did not lead to improvements in body measurements and metabolic balance during the follow-up period. The two studies showed conflicting results regarding compensatory effects during leisure. Participants in the Inphact treadmill study decreased their MVPA during leisure, while no compensatory effects were seen in the AOD-study. Our results suggest a possible ceiling effect for the amount sitting time can be reducedin office workers, and that SB and PA in offices is influenced by many factors, such as organizational culture, physical environment, work tasks, work load and physical comfort. Together, the studies in this thesis confirm the importance of carefully tailored worksite interventions for decreasing SB and increasing PA at work.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 69
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2053
Keywords
physical activity, sedentary behavior, office workers, office design, intervention, treadmill workstation, objective measurements
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164709 (URN)978-91-7855-131-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-22, Hörsal B, 9 trappor, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-01 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2364 kB)57 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 2364 kBChecksum SHA-512
fb7f7343b1e071b7e8e1f6962be8be2294d6bfce79d63d267050d5aeaf8f7d9de74999ed2c757988aa4af228b20ed4dcb465a0bebedc0714af540d646e8a63fe
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Bergman, FridaWahlström, ViktoriaStomby, AndreasOtten, JuliaLanthén, EllenRenklint, RebeckaWaling, MariaSörlin, AnnBoraxbekk, Carl-JohanWennberg, PatrikÖhberg, FredrikOlsson, Tommy

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergman, FridaWahlström, ViktoriaStomby, AndreasOtten, JuliaLanthén, EllenRenklint, RebeckaWaling, MariaSörlin, AnnBoraxbekk, Carl-JohanWennberg, PatrikÖhberg, FredrikOlsson, Tommy
By organisation
MedicineSection of Sustainable HealthSection of MedicineDepartment of Food and NutritionPhysiotherapyCentre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR)Family MedicineDepartment of Radiation Sciences
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 69 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 1073 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf