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Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0880-644X
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2018. , p. 91
Series
Archaeology and environment, ISSN 0281-5877 ; 31
Keywords [en]
Raw materials, mineral characterization, material agency, Near Infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, multivariate statistics
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154159ISBN: 978-91-7601-993-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-154159DiVA, id: diva2:1270228
Public defence
2019-01-25, S104, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Field-based near infrared spectroscopy for analysis of Scandinavian Stone Age rock paintings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Field-based near infrared spectroscopy for analysis of Scandinavian Stone Age rock paintings
2015 (English)In: Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, ISSN 0967-0335, E-ISSN 1751-6552, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the early autumn of 2014 a field-based near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study was carried out at Swedish and Norwegian StoneAge rock painting sites. This article presents results from one of them, namely Flatruet, Härjedalen, Sweden. Here, field-based NIRmeasurements were conducted using the 908–1676 nm wavelength range to gather 479 spectra: 427 of rock paintings and 52 of locallithology background. The whole dataset was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and four principal components wereextracted explaining 98.5% (PC1), 1.4% (PC2), 0.06% (PC3) and 0.04% (PC4). The PCA results showed that there was a large spread inthe spectra of both background and red paint objects, but also some evidence of clustering could be seen where background and paintingscould be separated. An improvement in separation was achieved with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) usingthe background and paint as categorical variables. The most important components of the PLS-DA model showed a better separation inthe score plot. A small test set of 10 paint and 10 background samples showed that one of the paint samples and two of the backgroundsamples were misclassified. One conclusion is that there is a large spread in background due to varying precipitation of secondary ironoxides. It was also decided to look deeper into local models of painted elks and their pigments alone. This was done using local PCAmodels and soft independent modelling of class analogies showing that some painted elks could be separated from each other whileothers were quite similar, which is important for answering questions about origin, age and weathering.

Keywords
field-based NIR spectroscopy, rock art, chemometrics, archaeology
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
environmental archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110315 (URN)10.1255/jnirs.1172 (DOI)000368401900004 ()
Projects
MOBIMA
Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Near Infrared imaging spectroscopy for raw materials characterization: the example of a mesolithic dwelling site in Northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near Infrared imaging spectroscopy for raw materials characterization: the example of a mesolithic dwelling site in Northern Sweden
2017 (English)In: The exploitation of raw materials in prehistory: sourcing, processing and distribution / [ed] Telmo Pereira, Xavier Terradas, Nuno Bicho, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017, p. 113-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017
Keywords
Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Image analysis, Mesolithic tools
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142753 (URN)978-1-4438-9597-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Hyperspectral Imaging for Characterization of Lithic Raw Materials: the Case of aMesolithic Dwelling in Northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyperspectral Imaging for Characterization of Lithic Raw Materials: the Case of aMesolithic Dwelling in Northern Sweden
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Lithic Technology, ISSN 2051-6185Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study proposes a method for the classification of lithic raw materials by means of hyperspectralimaging, a non-destructive fast analytical technique. The information potential of this approach wastested on a dwelling site dated to mid-late Mesolithic (7200–5800 BP) at Lillsjön, Ångermanland,Sweden. A dataset of lithic tools and flakes (2612 objects) made of quartz and quartzite, wasanalyzed using a shortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging system. The classification of the rawmaterials was performed applying multivariate statistical models. A random test set of 55artefacts was selected, classified according to spectral signature and divided into categoriescorresponding to different geological materials. The same test set was analyzed with EnergyDispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED XRF) to validate the classification. The entire dataset of lithicscollected on the site was then classified applying a SIMCA model. The distribution of items onthe site was visualized in a 3D GIS platform according to their geological characteristics tohighlight patterns that could indicate different use of the space and dynamics of raw materialssupply over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Lithic raw materials, hyperspectral imaging, EDXRF, chemometrics, intra-site analysis, Swedish Mesolithic semi-subterranean dwellings
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154130 (URN)10.1080/01977261.2018.1543105 (DOI)
Projects
Mobima
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13
4. Characterization of building materials by means of spectral remote sensing: the example of Carcassonne's defensive wall (Aude, France)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of building materials by means of spectral remote sensing: the example of Carcassonne's defensive wall (Aude, France)
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2352-4103, p. 396-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geological and archaeological analysis of stone masonries in standing structures helps reveal information aboutuse of natural resources. At the same time, the study of historical materials is useful for conservators and culturalheritage management. Geochemical and petrographic analysis of building material types is usually done throughdestructive analysis on a few selected samples and can be problematic due to the costs of operations and the sizeof buildings themselves. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral imaging portable NearInfrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy can be useful foranalysing types of raw materials used in distinct construction phases of the inner defensive wall in the citadel ofCarcassonne (Aude, France). Stratigraphic analysis of the architecture, short-range spectral remote sensing andportable ED-XRF measurements were combined in an interdisciplinary approach to classify sandstone elements.The experimental protocol for in situ non-destructive analysis and classification of the masonry types allows theinvestigation of the monument in a diachronic perspective, collecting information to delineate raw materialsvarieties and their use or re-use through time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Hyperspectral imaging, Portable NIR, ED-XRF, Multivariate statistics, Provenance of building materials, Buildings archaeology, Historical monuments
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154131 (URN)10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.10.030 (DOI)
Projects
Mobima
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Combining Archaeological Surveys and Provenance of Raw Materials by Means of Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy.: the example of Montescaglioso (Basilicata, Italy)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Archaeological Surveys and Provenance of Raw Materials by Means of Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy.: the example of Montescaglioso (Basilicata, Italy)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we explore the potentialities of near infrared (NIR) portable spectroscopy in survey activities for in situ non-destructive analysis of stone artefacts. We argue that this method is useful for achieving screening analysis for materials that cannot be moved or sampled. NIR spectra describe the textural and molecular characteristics of the materials and can be matched to classify lithic objects according to their mineral characteristics. We present a case study from the territory of Montescaglioso (Matera, Italy), where we analysed a calcarenite (limestone) quarry in Masseria D’Alessio, which has been exploited since the 6th century BC, as well as artefacts of the same chronology (stone coffins, fortification walls, a stone mortar and amillstone) found in surveys or excavations in the nearby sites of Masseria Lollo, Difes San Biagio and Montescaglioso. The aim was to determine the distribution of the particular calcarenite extracted from the quarry and identify exploitation, production and trade patterns. Documentation of toolmarks and the process of stone working were combined with the spectral signature of the artefacts in order to associate mineral characteristics of the stone types and extraction/carving techniques. The spectral data collected were processed using multivariate statistics to highlight clustering and conduct supervised classification.

National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154133 (URN)
Projects
Mobima - CHORA
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13

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23456785 of 11
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