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UDP-Sugar Producing Pyrophosphorylases: Distinct and Essential Enzymes With Overlapping Substrate Specificities, Providing de novo Precursors for Glycosylation Reactions
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1822Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nucleotide sugars are the key precursors for all glycosylation reactions and are required both for oligo- and polysaccharides synthesis and protein and lipid glycosylation. Among all nucleotide sugars, UDP-sugars are the most important precursors for biomass production in nature (e.g., synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins for cell wall production). Several recent studies have already suggested a potential role for UDP-Glc in plant growth and development, and UDP-Glc has also been suggested as a signaling molecule, in addition to its precursor function. In this review, we will cover primary mechanisms of formation of UDP-sugars, by focusing on UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases. The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase), and UDP-N-acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be distinguished both by their amino acid sequences and by differences in substrate specificity. Substrate specificities of these enzymes are discussed, along with structure-function relationships, based on their crystal structures and homology modeling. Earlier studies with transgenic plants have revealed that each of the pyrophosphorylases is essential for plant survival, and their loss or a decrease in activity results in reproductive impairment. This constitutes a problem when studying exact in vivo roles of the enzymes using classical reverse genetics approaches. Thus, strategies involving the use of specific inhibitors (reverse chemical genetics) are also discussed. Further characterization of the properties/roles of pyrophosphorylases should address fundamental questions dealing with mechanisms and control of carbohydrate synthesis and may allow to identify targets for manipulation of biomass production in plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019. Vol. 9, article id 1822
Keywords [en]
carbohydrate biosynthesis, chemical genetics, nucleotide sugar synthesis, enzyme substrate specificity, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155633DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01822ISI: 000454879300001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-155633DiVA, id: diva2:1282687
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Kempe FoundationsLars Hierta Memorial FoundationAvailable from: 2019-01-25 Created: 2019-01-25 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Decker, DanielKleczkowski, Leszek A.

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