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Timing of eating across ten European countries: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 459, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 324-335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00-14.00 and 15.00-24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.

SETTING: Ten Western European countries.

SUBJECTS: In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35-74 years (n 36 020).

RESULTS: A south-north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).

CONCLUSIONS: We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nutrition Society , 2019. Vol. 22, no 2, p. 324-335
Keywords [en]
24 h diet recall, Chrono-nutrition, Diurnal eating, EPIC, Meal patterns, Meals, Snacks, Standardization
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156373DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002288ISI: 000458515400014PubMedID: 30326988OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-156373DiVA, id: diva2:1288345
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 09:57
Available from 2020-02-01 09:57

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Wennberg, Maria

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