umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Building Memory Representations for Exemplar-Based Judgment: A Role for Ventral Precuneus
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The brain networks underlying human multiple-cue judgment, the judgment of a continuous criterion based on multiple cues, have been examined in a few recent studies, and the ventral precuneus has been found to be a key region. Specifically, activation differences in ventral precuneus (as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) has been linked to an exemplar-based judgment process, where judgments are based on memory for previous similar cases. Ventral precuneus is implicated in various episodic memory processes, notably such that increased activity during learning in this region as well as in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the medial temporal lobes (MTL) have been linked to retrieval success. The present study used fMRI during a multiple-cue judgment task to gain novel neurocognitive evidence informative for the link between learning-related activity changes in ventral precuneus and exemplar-based judgment. Participants (N = 27) spontaneously learned to make judgments during fMRI, in a multiple-cue judgment task specifically designed to induce exemplar-based processing. Contrasting brain activity during late learning to early learning revealed higher activity in ventral precuneus, the bilateral MTL, and the vmPFC. Activity in the ventral precuneus and the vmPFC was found to parametrically increase between each judgment event, and activity levels in the ventral precuneus predicted performance after learning. These results are interpreted such that the ventral precuneus supports the aspects of exemplar-based processes that are related to episodic memory, tentatively by building, storing, and being implicated in retrieving memory representations for judgment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019. Vol. 13, article id 228
Keywords [en]
multiple-cue judgment, exemplar-based model, cognitive modeling, fMRI, judgment and decision making, precuneus
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159176DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00228ISI: 000475956500001PubMedID: 31379536Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85069499904OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-159176DiVA, id: diva2:1316913
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similarity-based processes in human multiple-cue judgment: evidence from brain imaging and cognitive modelling
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: We often make judgments that require the consideration of several sources of information. For example, a teacher that grades a student´s exam question often integrates multiple sources of information (cues: details provided in the answer) into a single criterion dimension (the grade). This is an example of a multiple-cue judgment: a continuous estimate based on multiple cues. One common idea in the literature is that people often utilize different memory representations during this kind of judgment process. People sometimes rely on rules, where they weigh the impact of different cues together in an additive linear way. At other times, people focus on the similarity between a probe and their experience of previous similar cases.  It has been proposed that similarity is an important organizing principle by which people make judgments, and that similarity always influence the judgment process to some degree. Behavioral methods with cognitive modelling (fitting cognitive models of rule-based and similarity-based processes to behavioral judgment data) have been used to test when people engage in either process, based on the classification of the better model fit. The brain networks that support human multiple-cue judgment could provide some answers to the role of similarity-based processes, but the existing knowledge on this topic is limited.  Here, I combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cognitive modelling and experimental methods to extend previous behavioral research, and I focused on the nature of similarity in human multiple-cue judgment. I explored how the two types of memory representations are represented in the brain, if rule-based and similarity-based processes are exclusively engaged or operate as an interplay during the judgment process, and tested if similarity-based processes are the default process in rule-based judgment. 

Results: Study I investigated how the relationship between rule-based and similarity-based processes should be understood. The results revealed that a similarity-based process in the precuneus is shared between the two conditions: a key brain region for similarity-based processes is thus critical for human judgment. Study II further explored the precuneus role in similarity-based judgment learning, and demonstrated that the precuneus contribute to a mnemonic process related to storing and retrieving memory representations that are used for similarity comparison. Study III tested the influence of similarity-based processes in rule-based judgment when a learned rule could not be applied, and results suggested that similarity-based processes influenced rule-based behavior. 

Conclusion: These findings converge to the idea that similarity-based processes are critical for human multiple-cue judgment. Specifically, a similarity-based process in the precuneus, presumably involved in storage and retrieval of memory representations that are used for similarity comparison, stands out as a novel contribution to the neuroscience of human multiple-cue judgment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2019. p. 84
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2044
Keywords
multiple-cue judgment, similarity-based, rule-based, exemplar-based model, fMRI, cognitive modelling
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159209 (URN)978-91-7855-085-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, Bio.A.206, Biologihuset, Flygel A, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2853 kB)57 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2853 kBChecksum SHA-512
8a0552f57e293bf93f5c0893370a94b1241a8d024a26cb58fe93200343bd7c972ea073be3ecd32ab65004083cdc04f5429a475040a93cbe1c2cb76373b05eaa6
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMedScopus

Authority records BETA

Stillesjö, SaraNyberg, LarsKarlsson Wirebring, Linnea

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Stillesjö, SaraNyberg, LarsKarlsson Wirebring, Linnea
By organisation
Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI)Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB)Department of Radiation SciencesDepartment of Psychology
In the same journal
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Neurosciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 57 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 197 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf