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Defunctioning stomas decrease chances of a stoma-free outcome after anterior resection for rectal cancer
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9086-7403
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165138OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-165138DiVA, id: diva2:1369394
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Permanent stoma after anterior resection for rectal cancer: prevalence and mechanisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Permanent stoma after anterior resection for rectal cancer: prevalence and mechanisms
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While sphincter-saving surgery constitutes standard treatment for rectal cancer, anterior resection still harbours a significant risk of a permanent stoma in the long run. Although anastomotic leakage plays a major role in this surgical dilemma, the exact mechanisms are not known, while surveys indicate a stoma-free outcome is essential for a majority of patients. To address this issue, the overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate the permanent stoma prevalence in patients undergoing anterior resection for rectal cancer in Sweden, and to identify plausible mechanisms that impede prospects of a stoma-free outcome.

In a population-based cohort, chart review of patients who had anterior resection for rectal cancer in the Northern healthcare region in Sweden between 2007 and 2013 showed that 75 out of 316 (24%) patients ended up with a permanent stoma. Of 274 patients (87%) primarily defunctioned with a stoma, 229 underwent stoma closure, 21 (9%) of whom suffered major complications that required return to theatre or worse. A permanent stoma was shown to be more common among patients with anastomotic leakage and an advanced tumour stage.

A registry-based method to estimate nationwide stoma outcome after anterior resection for rectal cancer was developed, using data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the National Patient Registry. With a chart-reviewed cohort as reference, stoma outcome was assessed with a positive predictive value of 85.1%, and a negative predictive value of 100.0%. In patients operated in Sweden between 2007 and 2013, the registry-based method determined that 942 out of 4768 (19.8%) had a permanent stoma, while stoma rates varied substantially between different healthcare regions.

In a 1:1 matched case-control study of 82 patients who had curative resection for non-disseminated colorectal cancer, a subgroup analysis of 34 patients with rectal cancer displayed biomarker aberrations in serum measured preoperatively in those with anastomotic leakage. Compared to complication-free controls, 15 proteins related to inflammation were elevated, of which two (C-X-C motif chemokine 6, and C-C motif chemokine 11) remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing.

Based on a cohort of 4529 patients who had anterior resection, tumour height served as a proxy to determine the extent of mesorectal excision, while long-term stoma outcome was classified using a previously validated registry-based method. Defunctioning stomas significantly decreased chances of a stoma-free outcome, especially in patients undergoing partial mesorectal excision; for these patients, faecal diversion was also least beneficial in terms of reducing anastomotic leakage.

In conclusion, every fifth patient undergoing anterior resection for rectal cancer in Sweden eventually ends up with a permanent stoma. Although construction of a defunctioning stoma decreases the risk of symptomatic anastomotic leakage, subsequent takedown surgery carries a substantial risk of major complications, while chances of a long-term stoma-free outcome become significantly reduced. To facilitate selective use of faecal diversion, novel markers to identify high-risk anastomoses prior to surgery have been identified, but require validation in larger prospective settings. Anterior resection without a defunctioning stoma should be considered in appropriately informed patients for whom a stoma-free outcome is of importance. In particular, this holds true for patients eligible for partial mesorectal excision, where anastomotic dehiscence is less frequent and the advantageous effects of a defunctioning stoma are limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2019. p. 79
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2059
Keywords
rectal cancer, anterior resection, permanent stoma, defunctioning stoma, mesorectal excision, biomarkers
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165134 (URN)978-91-7855-136-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-06, Hörsal B, Unod T9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 52103/7003487Cancerforskningsfonden i NorrlandSwedish Society of MedicineVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved

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Holmgren, KlasHäggström, JennyHaapamäki, Markku M.Rutegård, JörgenRutegård, Martin

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