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Policy change implications for forest water protection in Sweden over the last 50 years
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5582-9877
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6546-5210
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
2019 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Improving water quality has become an important environmental issue, spurred in part by the Water Framework Directive. However, the relationship of policy change with forest water protection measures is relatively unknown. We analyzed how policy and practice have developed in Sweden using 50 years of historic data from the Krycklan Catchment Study, ocusing on riparian buffers. Corresponding to legislation, education and voluntary measures mphasizing stream protection, two step changes occurred; between the 1970s–1980s, buffers increased by 67%, then by 100% between 1990s and 2000s. By 2013, just 50% of the stream length affected by forestry was protected and the application has varied by stream size; small streams lacked a buffer approximately 65% of the time, while 90% of large streams had buffers. The doubling of buffer implementation from the 1990s–2000s corresponded to the adoption of a number of environmental protection policies in the 1990s that all came into effect during this period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019.
Keywords [en]
Forest water, Policy change, Protection zone, Riparian buffer, Riparian reserves, Water quality
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
political science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165160DOI: 10.1007/s13280-019-01274-yISI: 000495351000003PubMedID: 31705460OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-165160DiVA, id: diva2:1369567
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2020-02-03
In thesis
1. Forest water governance: challenges in cross-sectoral and multi-level collaboration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest water governance: challenges in cross-sectoral and multi-level collaboration
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Forests and water are highly interconnected with forestry practices negatively affecting forest water. In the last five decades, the Swedish state has enacted multiple policy changes and allocated significant resources towards the implementation of soft policy instruments to alleviate the effects on forest water. The European Union Water Framework Directive has further raised the legal requirements for water protection, including within the forest sector. However, these efforts have largely failed thus far. Forests and water are governed by two separate sectors, each with its own polycentric governance system and policy goals that are often conflicting. The governance mode of these systems is determined by a unique combination of policy instruments and a varying degree of centralisation depending on state involvement. Since governing forest water requires collaboration between the forest and water sector governance systems, it entails interplay between the two systems on different ecological scales. The aim of this thesis is to explore and explain the challenges related to the governance of a resource that requires cross-sectoral multi-level governance and to examine the role of the state in those interactions. The thesis includes a mix of quantitative (survey and aerial photographs) and qualitative (interviews, analysis of documents and meeting observations) research methods for investigating forest water governance across national, regional and local levels. Empirically, it involves four case studies analysing units embedded in the larger case – namely cross-sectoral governance of forest water.

The results show that within the current structure of Swedish forest water governance there is minimal cross-sectoral collaboration, with an exception being at the national level. Regional and local implementation of the outputs produced at national level relies mainly on the forest sector, with little to no coordination with water sector institutions at the regional district or river basin levels. Moreover, power asymmetries between the two sectors are transposed to the collaborative process which affects participants’ capacity to influence the governance of forest water. Since the studied cases show that most of the financial resources for forest water protection are provided top-down, the role of the state in initiating and maintaining collaboration is crucial. The thesis confirms previous research findings that water governance requires a more centralised polycentric governance system. Combining polycentric governance (including at the river basin scale) with centralised state-coordination is a potential solution to problems that require cross-sectoral and multi-level governance interplay. Further inquiry into cross-sectoral governance of natural resources could develop a better understanding of how coordination in polycentric governance systems at different ecological scales could be structured to mitigate policy goal conflicts across sectors and institutional levels, thus fostering more effective governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2020. p. 75
Series
Statsvetenskapliga institutionens skriftserie, ISSN 0349-0831 ; 2020:1
Keywords
Forest water, Governance, Cross-sectoral governance, Multi-level governance, Governance mode, Collaborative governance, Natural resource management, Environmental policy, Water Framework Directive
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167747 (URN)978-91-7855-189-7 (ISBN)978-91-7855-190-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-02-28, S213, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-02-07 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-02-14Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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