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Tunable two-dimensional patterning of a semiconducting C60 fullerene film using a spatial light modulator
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7493-6838
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5475-1422
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1274-5918
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166406OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-166406DiVA, id: diva2:1378923
Part of project
The light-emitting electrochemical cell: Developing rational design principles for efficient, bright and green operation, Swedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2019-12-18
In thesis
1. Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The functionality and application of organic semiconductors are largely dependent on their constituent structure and morphology. This thesis presents a number of functional and novel approaches for the control and tuning of structural and morphological features of a variety of organic semiconductor materials, and also demonstrates that these approaches can be utilized for improved device operation of field-effect transistors, organic solar cells and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

The fullerene family is a particular group of closed-cage organic semiconductors, which can be photochemically coupled into larger dimeric or polymeric structures through the excitation of the fullerene molecules by light emission. In Paper I, we perform a detailed experimental and analytical investigation, which demonstrates that this photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation requires that both constituent fullerene molecules are photoexcited. The direct consequence is that the initial probability for the photochemical transformation is dependent on the square of the light-emission intensity.

The photochemical coupling of fullerene molecules commonly results in a distinctly lowered solubility in common hydrophobic solvents, which can be utilized for the direct patterning of fullerene films by resist-free lithography. In Paper II, we utilize this patterning opportunity for the fabrication of one-dimensional fullerene nano-stripes using two-beam laser interference lithography. A desired high contrast between the patterned and non-patterned fullerene regions is facilitated by the non-linear response of the photochemical transformation process, as predicted by the findings in Paper I. The patterned fullerene nano-stripes were utilized as the active material in field-effect transistors, which featured high electron mobility and large on-off ratio.

This patterning was in Paper III extended into easy tunable two-dimensional fullerene structures by the design and development of an exposure setup, essentially comprising a laser and a spatial light modulator featuring >8 millions of independently controlled mirrors. With this approach, we could fabricate well-defined fullerene microdots over a several square-millimeter sized area, which was utilized as an internal out-coupling layer in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with significantly enhanced light output.

Paper IV reports on the development of a new “spray-sintering” method for the cost-efficient solution-based deposition of the active material in light-emitting electrochemical cells. This carefully designed approach effectively resolves the issue with phase separation between the hydrophobic organic semiconductor and the hydrophilic electrolyte that results in a sub-par LEC performance, and also allows for the direct fabrication of LEC devices onto complex surfaces, including a stainless-steel fork.

Paper V finally reports on the design and synthesis of a soluble small molecule, featuring a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. It acts as the donor when combined with a soluble fullerene acceptor in the active material of organic solar cells, and such devices with optimized donor/acceptor nanomorphology feature a high open-circuit voltage of ~1.0 V during solar illumination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 65
Keywords
Organic electronics, organic photonics, patterning, fullerene, polymerization, dimerization, spray-deposition, morphology, small molecule donor, high open-circuit voltage
National Category
Polymer Technologies Nano Technology Other Physics Topics Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-166407 (URN)978-91-7855-170-5 (ISBN)978-91-7855-169-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-09, Bio.A.206, Biologihuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved

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Enevold, JennyDahlberg, TobiasStangner, TimTang, ShiLindh, E. MattiasGracia-Espino, EduardoAndersson, MagnusEdman, Ludvig

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