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Screening Suitability of Northern Hemisphere Algal Strains for Heterotrophic Cultivation and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Production
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9481-8537
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2298-8844
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2020 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 9, article id 2107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapid rises in atmospheric CO2 levels derived from fossil fuel combustion are imposing urgent needs for renewable substitutes. One environmentally friendly alternative is biodiesel produced from suitable microalgal fatty acids. Algal strains normally grow photoautotrophically, but this is problematic in Northern areas because of the light limitations for much of the year. Mixotrophic and particularly heterotrophic strains could be valuable, especially if they can be cultivated in municipal wastewater with contents of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous that should be reduced before release into receiving water. Thus, the aim of this study was to screen for microalgal strains suitable for heterotrophic cultivation with a cheap carbon source (glycerol) for biodiesel production in Nordic, and other high-latitude, countries. One of the examined strains, a Desmodesmus sp. strain designated 2-6, accumulated biomass at similar rates in heterotrophic conditions with 40 mM glycerol as in autotrophic conditions. Furthermore, in heterotrophic conditions it produced more fatty acids, and ca. 50% more C18:1 fatty acids, as well as showing a significant decrease in C18:3 fatty acids, all of which are highly desirable features for biodiesel production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020. Vol. 25, no 9, article id 2107
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170967DOI: 10.3390/molecules25092107Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85084276302OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-170967DiVA, id: diva2:1431207
Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-05-19 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Autotrophic and heterotrophic culture of Nordic microalgae in wastewater for lipid production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autotrophic and heterotrophic culture of Nordic microalgae in wastewater for lipid production
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is well established that society’s main means for producing energy, the combustion of fossil fuels, is unsustainable and contributes to global warming. Microalgae have high potential for the production of biodiesel and energy source that can at least partially replace fossil fuels. In addition, microalgae are a valuable resource for cleaning up the wastewater that developed societies produce on a daily basis. The research presented in this thesis covers how various growth conditions affect the production of lipids – potential energy source – in Nordic microalgae species, and how these species can benefit municipal wastewater treatment.

The research presented in Paper 1 demonstrated that the combination of Fourier-Transform IR (FTIR) and Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCRALS) is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in the biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) of microalgae grown under different conditions. Experiments showed that Chlorella sp. isolated from Umeå was able to grow under heterotrophic conditions using glycerol as a carbon source and, more importantly, demonstrated high lipid content. The substantial accumulation of lipids observed in Chlorella sp. corresponded to a decrease in carbohydrate content. Paper 2 covered the key metabolites associated with the observed high lipid content under heterotrophic conditions. The low carbohydrate content observed under these growth conditions may be linked to low levels of the metabolites involved in gluconeogenesis. Conversely, the increase in lipid content may be associated with an increase in fatty acid metabolites and/or certain amino acids. The research presented in Paper 3 showed that microalgae grown under high light intensity (300 μE m−2 s−1 ) have higher lipid contents than microalgae grown under low light intensities (50 and 100 μE m−2 s−1). The increase in lipid content under high light intensity conditions corresponded with a decrease in protein content. The research described in paper 4 demonstrated that among various Nordic strains, Desmodesmus sp. is the best candidate for biomass and lipid production under heterotrophic conditions with glycerol as the carbon source. Furthermore, the research covered in Papers 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated that the increase in lipid content under certain growth conditions corresponded to better biodiesel quality based on fatty acid composition. The experiments described in Papers 1,3 and 4 also showed that microalgae were able to remove most of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, and thus, could be beneficial to municipal wastewater treatment plants.

In summary, we showed that coupling FTIR to MCR-ALS is useful for evaluating changes in the biochemical composition of microalgae. Nordic microalgae were able to produce high amounts of lipids, which showed a favorable fatty acid profile in terms of biodiesel quality, under certain growth conditions. Subsequent analyses provided insight into which metabolites were responsible for the observed changes in lipid accumulation. We also showed that Nordic microalgae can contribute to wastewater treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2020. p. 44
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170858 (URN)978-91-7855-306-8 (ISBN)978-91-7855-307-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-15, KBF301, KBC huset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

In thesis and posting sheet wrongly stated the E-ISBN as ISSN. 

Errata iposting sheet: New place for public defence: KBF301

Available from: 2020-05-25 Created: 2020-05-15 Last updated: 2020-06-04Bibliographically approved

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Nzayisenga, Jean ClaudeFerro, LorenzaFunk, ChristianeSellstedt, Anita

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Nzayisenga, Jean ClaudeFerro, LorenzaGorzsas, AndrasFunk, ChristianeSellstedt, Anita
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