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Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. (Arcum)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9227-8434
Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Lund, Sweden.
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2021 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 515-529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality.

METHODS: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) were estimated using data from life cycle assessments. Fifteen variants of nutrient density indexes were evaluated and the index that best predicted mortality was used to estimate participants' nutrient density. GHGEs and nutrient density were adjusted for energy intakes. Total mortality risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for 4 groups of women and men, respectively, i.e., higher nutrient density, lower climate impact (HNutr/LClim); higher nutrient density, higher climate impact (HNutr/HClim); lower nutrient density, lower climate impact (LNutr/LClim); and lower nutrient density, higher climate impact (LNutr/HClim-reference group).

RESULTS: NRF11.3, a Sweden-adapted variant of the Nutrient Rich Foods index, was identified to have the best ability to predict mortality in the study population. Median follow-up times for women and men were 16.0 and 14.7 y, respectively. For women a significantly lower mortality risk was found for HNutr/LClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96; P = 0.008) and HNutr/HClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97; P = 0.011) than for LNutr/HClim. Among men LNutr/LClim had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21; P = 0.033) than LNutr/HClim.

CONCLUSIONS: Diets beneficial for both health and climate are feasible and associated with lower mortality risk in women. Further studies are needed to understand how men may transition into diets that are more sustainable from a combined health and climate perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2021. Vol. 114, no 2, p. 515-529
Keywords [en]
carbon dioxide equivalents, climate impact, diet quality, food frequency questionnaire, mortality, nutrient density index
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183236DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab073ISI: 000685072000019PubMedID: 33871543Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85103856814OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-183236DiVA, id: diva2:1555808
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019/0007Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, IngegerdLindahl, BerntWinkvist, Anna

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