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Solar cycle variation of ion escape from Mars
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7787-2160
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
Umeå University. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5494-5374
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2023 (English)In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 393, article id 114610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using Mars Express data from 2007 until 2020 we show how ion outflow from Mars varied over more than a solar cycle, from one solar minimum to another. The data was divided into intervals with a length of one Martian year, starting from 30 April 2007 and ending 13 July 2020. The net escape rate was about 5×1024s−1 in the first covered minimum, and 2−3×1024s−1 in the most recent minimum. Ion escape peaked at 1×1025s−1 during the intervening solar maximum. The outflow is a clear function of the solar cycle, in agreement with previous studies which found a clear relationship between solar EUV flux and ion escape at Mars. The outflow during solar maximum is 2.5 to 3 times higher than in the surrounding solar minima. The average solar wind dynamic pressure over a Martian year was investigated, but does not vary much with the solar cycle. The escape rate at solar maximum is in good agreement with some recent MAVEN studies, and dominated by low energy ions at most sampled locations. A simple linear fit to the data gives a prediction of the escape rate for the much stronger solar maximum during the Phobos mission in 1989 that is consistent with observations. The fit also implies a non-linear response of ion escape for low solar EUV, with a lower initial escape response for lower solar EUV levels than those of the studied data set.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2023. Vol. 393, article id 114610
Keywords [en]
Magnetospheres, Mars, Mars atmosphere, Mars climate
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-191346DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114610ISI: 000953414200001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85111018401OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-191346DiVA, id: diva2:1627577
Available from: 2022-01-13 Created: 2022-01-13 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved

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Nilsson, HansZhang, QiHolmström, MatsWieser, Martin

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