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Exploring the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union – A scoping review
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3659-1351
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1230-6720
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3581-7980
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4690-6759
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 585-603Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Patrolling police officers engage in different mentally, socially, and physically challenging life contexts which may affect their life and health. The aim of this scoping review is twofold, to explore life contexts of patrolling officers in the European Union, and to investigate how their lives and health are affected by environmental characteristics within these contexts.

Methods: The scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley’s methodology and included a critical appraisal. The environmental model within Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation was used in the thematic analysis. The review was reported following PRISMA-ScR.

Results: In the 16 included studies, two contexts (where environments interact with persons on different levels) were discovered: the global and the immediate context. No local contexts were found. Primarily, research on the social, and occupational environments, including qualities identified in these environments were found. However, some environmental characteristics within patrolling officers’ physical environments were also discovered.

Discussion: This review contributes to the emerging research area of police officers’ life contexts, by mapping contexts and environments affecting their life and health. However, to get a deeper understanding of how officers are affected by their environments, interviewing them regarding how their different contexts affect their everyday living, would be important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023. Vol. 30, no 5, p. 585-603
Keywords [en]
Activity, environment, health, MOHO, occupational, patrol duty, physical, social, thematic analysis
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Research subject
Occupational therapy; police science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192771DOI: 10.1080/11038128.2022.2041088ISI: 000761484700001PubMedID: 35225165Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85125928893OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-192771DiVA, id: diva2:1640838
Available from: 2022-02-27 Created: 2022-02-27 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Beyond the badge: police officers’ lifestyles and health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the badge: police officers’ lifestyles and health
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Mer än yrket : polisers livsstil och hälsa
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Being a frontline police officer is regarded to be one of the most high-strain professions in the world, encompassing physical, emotional and cognitive stressors. These stressors may cause ill health, physically, mentally and socially, impacting both professional and private life roles and everyday activities. Despite this, there has been limited consideration of the broader complexities of police officers’ lifestyles. Thus, the primary aim of this thesis was to identify health promoters and health challenges within the lifestyles of frontline police officers using a transactional perspective. The secondary aim was to translate these findings into the initial developmental stages of an instrument targeting critical areas of police officers’ lifestyles to foster health sustainability.

Method: The thesis includes four studies. In Study I, a method for scoping reviews was used when gathering data from previously conducted studies within Europe. Studies II and III were qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. In Study II a reflexive thematic analysis was used, whereas in Study III qualitative content analysis was utilized. Study IV builds on data from the other studies. During the early development process of the instrument focus groups, cognitive interviewing methods and a content validity approach were undertaken.

Findings: Altogether, the findings offer insights into how police officers’ lifecontexts, roles and everyday activities transact to become their unique lifestyles. In Study I the life contexts affecting police officers’ lives and health were mapped. It was concluded that research on police officers’ private lives is limited in Europe, despite contextual and environmental influences on their lives and health. In Studies II and III it was found that balancing work with private-life activities and roles included health challenges and resources. The findings relate to balancing risk and violence with vigilance in private life, societal attitudes with the police identity, work with healthy routines and habits, and unpredictability with stability. Study IV took initial steps towards crafting a self-reflection instrument targeting the essential conditions for living a sustainable and healthy lifestyle asa police officer.

Conclusion: This thesis illuminates the complex interplay of factors that definethe unique lifestyles of police officers, influenced by their life contexts, roles, and everyday activities. It highlights the importance of both organizational strategies and police officers utilizing health-promoting strategies in maintaining asustainable lifestyle essential for fostering health sustainability. In the context of societal challenges and the need for a strong police force, maintaining police officers’ health sustainability is crucial for the benefit of both the Police Authority and society.

Abstract [sv]

Introduktion: Att vara polis i yttre tjänst anses vara ett av de mest påfrestande yrkena i världen, med avseende på de fysiska, emotionella och kognitiva stressfaktorer som yrket innebär. Dessa stressorer kan leda till ohälsa, både fysiskt, mentalt och socialt, vilket kan påverka både professionella och privata roller och vardagsaktiviteter. Dock har väldigt lite gjorts för att närma sig den komplexitet som finns gällande polisers livsstil. Därför var det primära syftet med avhandlingen att identifiera hälsopromotorer och hälsoutmaningar gällande livsstil hos poliser i yttre tjänst, utifrån ett transaktionellt perspektiv. Det sekundära syftet var att översätta dessa fynd till de inledande stegen i utvecklingen av ett instrument, som fokuserar på kritiska områden avseende polisers livsstil för att främja hållbarhet gällande deras hälsa.

Metod: Avhandlingen omfattar fyra studier. I Studie I användes en metod för översiktsstudier där data samlades från tidigare genomförda studier i Europa. Studierna II-III var kvalitativa studier med djupintervjuer. I Studie II användes en reflexiv tematisk analys, medan kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes i Studie III. Studie IV bygger på data från övriga studier. Under de första faserna i utvecklingen av instrumentet användes fokusgrupper, kognitiva intervjuer och en innehållsvalideringsmetod.

Resultat: Sammantaget ger resultaten insikt i hur polisers livskontexter, roller och aktiviteter växelverkar för att bli deras unika livsstilar. I Studie I kartlades hur polisernas livskontexter påverkar deras liv och hälsa. Slutsatsen var att forskning om polisers privata liv är begränsad i Europa, trots den påverkan som kontext och miljö har på deras liv och hälsa. I Studierna II och III upptäcktes att balansen mellan polisernas arbete, samt aktiviteter och roller i privatlivet innebar både utmaningar och resurser för hälsan. Resultaten är kopplade till hur de balanserar risk och våld med vaksamhet i privatlivet, samhällets attityder med polisidentiteten, sitt arbete med hälsosamma rutiner och vanor, samt oförutsägbarhet med stabilitet. I Studie IV togs de initiala steg i utformningen av ett instrument för självreflektion som fokuserar på de grundläggande förutsättningarna för att leva en hållbar och hälsosam livsstil som polis.

Konklusion: Denna avhandling belyser den komplexa interaktion av faktorer som definierar polisers unika livsstilar, påverkade av deras livskontexter, roller och vardagsaktiviteter. Den belyser vikten av organisatoriska strategier, såväl som polisers hälsofrämjande strategier i att upprätthålla en hållbar livsstil viktig för att främja hållbarhet gällande hälsa. I ljuset av samhällsutmaningar och behovet av en stark poliskår är upprätthållande av polisers hållbarhet gällande hälsa av yttersta vikt, både för Polismyndigheten och samhället.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023. p. 94
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2274
Keywords
Frontline police officers, Instrument development, Life balance, Life contexts, Mental health, Occupational balance, Occupational patterns, Physical health, Role balance, Social health, poliser i yttre tjänst, instrument utveckling, livsbalans, livskontexter, psykisk hälsa, aktivitetsbalans, aktivitetsmönster, fysisk hälsa, rollbalans, social hälsa
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Research subject
Occupational therapy; police science; sustainability
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217947 (URN)978-91-8070-223-2 (ISBN)978-91-8070-224-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-01-18, Aula Biologica, Biologihuset, Linneaus väg 7, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Granholm Valmari, ElinGhazinour, MehdiNygren, UllaGilenstam, Kajsa

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