Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Expecting, understanding, relating, and interacting: older, middle-aged and younger adults' perspectives on breakdown situations in human–robot dialogues
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3036-6519
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8430-4241
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 956709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore how older, middle aged and younger adults perceive breakdown situations caused by lack of or inconsistent knowledge, sudden focus shifts, and conflicting intentions in dialogues between a human and a socially intelligent robot in a home environment, and how they perceive strategies to manage breakdown situations.

Methods: Scenarios embedding dialogues on health-related topics were constructed based on activity-theoretical and argumentation frameworks. Different reasons for breakdown situations and strategies to handle these were embedded. The scenarios were recorded in a Wizard-of-Oz setup, with a human actor and a Nao robot. Twenty participants between 23 and 72 years of age viewed the recordings and participated in semi-structured interviews conducted remotely. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis.

Results: Four themes relating to breakdown situations emerged: expecting, understanding, relating, and interacting. The themes span complex human activity at different complementary levels and provide further developed understanding of breakdown situations in human–robot interaction (HRI). Older and middle-aged adults emphasized emphatic behavior and adherence to social norms, while younger adults focused on functional aspects such as gaze, response time, and length of utterances. A hierarchical taxonomy of aspects relating to breakdown situations was formed, and design implications are provided, guiding future research.

Conclusion: We conclude that a socially intelligent robot agent needs strategies to 1) construct and manage its understanding related to emotions of the human, social norms, knowledge, and motive on a higher level of meaningful human activity, 2) act accordingly, for instance, adhering to transparent social roles, and 3) resolve conflicting motives, and identify reasons to prevent and manage breakdown situations at different levels of collaborative activity. Furthermore, the novel methodology to frame the dynamics of human–robot dialogues in complex activities using Activity Theory and argumentation theory was instrumental in this work and will guide the future work on tailoring the robot's behavior.}

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022. Vol. 9, article id 956709
Keywords [en]
Activity Theory, human–robot interaction, breakdown situations, focus shift, qualitative study, social robotics, argumentation theory
National Category
Robotics Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200444DOI: 10.3389/frobt.2022.956709ISI: 000884479600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85141845765OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-200444DiVA, id: diva2:1705066
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP), MMW 2019.0220EU, Horizon 2020, 952026Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Breakdown situations in dialogues between humans and socially intelligent agents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breakdown situations in dialogues between humans and socially intelligent agents
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Situationer av sammanbrott i dialoger mellan människor och socialt intelligenta agenter
Abstract [en]

Dialogues between humans are complex due to the challenges in predicting how they will unfold as people may want to achieve different purposes. For instance, to act together, they co-create a common goal; to learn, they co-create knowledge; to build relationships, they share emotions and beliefs. Apart from different purposes, people may want to achieve multiple purposes in a dialogue, introducing a movement between goals. Such actions cause problems in understanding and conflicts among the participants. Activity Theory denotes such situations as breakdown situations, which also occur when people have dialogues with software agents driven by Artificial Intelligence (AI). This thesis falls within the domain of human-centred AI, focusing on software agents able to collaborate and support people to achieve their goals. We call these software agents socially intelligent agents.

This thesis has two aims: (1) to develop an increased understanding of breakdown situations in dialogues between humans and socially intelligent agents and (2) to develop computational frameworks based on the developed understanding to manage breakdown situations, which could be embedded in an agent's cognitive architecture. The theoretical frameworks from social sciences, particularly Activity Theory, were applied to address the aims. They provided an alternate perspective that considers breakdown situations as opportunities to learn something new rather than the traditional view of them being errors or failures.

The main contributions addressing the first aim were theory-driven analysis and empirical findings that provided increased knowledge of breakdown situations, resulting in design implications and future agendas guiding the subsequent research. The results informed the three strategies to manage breakdown situations by aligning, partially aligning or not aligning with human's intentions. We found that participants considered partial alignment as a sufficient level of agreement for potential collaboration, which would be interesting to verify in future studies. To address the second aim, two novel computational frameworks were provided. These frameworks were based on linguistics and social sciences theories, allowing an agent to interpret the dialogue's syntax, semantics, and social aspects, facilitating a deeper understanding of dialogues. Finally, a novel computational framework was developed to reason about conflicts and be able to plan by adopting the strategy of aligning with the human's intentions. 

We conceptualised a cognitive architecture based on our research findings. The cognitive architecture embeds mechanisms for socially intelligent agents to manage breakdown situations in dialogues with humans. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023. p. 68
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 23.07
Keywords
Dialogues, Breakdown Situations, Focus Shift, Human-Centric Artificial Intelligence, Engeström’s Activity Triangle, We-Intention, Argumentation-Based Dialogues, Grice’s Cooperative Principle, Communicative Functions, Wizard-of-Oz, User Studies, Thematic Analysis, Sequence Organisation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216752 (URN)9789180701648 (ISBN)9789180701655 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-12-14, MIT.A.121, MIT-huset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-11-23 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(3881 kB)214 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 3881 kBChecksum SHA-512
bb4be30364e1e478b19c73477e3f3526fe1b37003b8bc4c1c8d76b02c21bfc5936969c5a0907fee532f8e4419668053cd4d2e9788179cdf663b85e149ce4e63e
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records

Tewari, MaitreyeeLindgren, Helena

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Tewari, MaitreyeeLindgren, Helena
By organisation
Department of Computing Science
In the same journal
Frontiers in Robotics and AI
RoboticsHuman Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 214 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 618 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf